Optic nerve oxygen tension in pigs and the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (33/1894)

PURPOSE: To evaluate how the oxygen tension of the optic nerve (ONP(O)2) is affected by the administration of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and acetazolamide and by alterations in oxygen and carbon dioxide in the breathing mixture. METHODS: Polarographic oxygen electrodes were placed in the vitreous humor immediately over the optic disc in 20 anesthetized pigs. Blood gasses and cardiovascular physiology were monitored. ONP(O)2 was recorded continuously with breathing gasses of 21% O2-79% N2, 100% O2, 20% O2-80% N2, and 5.19% CO2-19.9%, O2-74.9% N2. Acetazolamide (15-1000 mg) and dorzolamide (6-1000 mg) were administered intravenously. RESULTS: The mean (+/- SD) ONP(O)2 was found to be 24.1+/-11.6 mm Hg when the pigs were breathing room air and 50.7+/-29.3 mm Hg when they were breathing 100% O2 (n = 15; P < 0.001). In response to breathing 5.19% CO2, ONP(O)2 changed from 20.8+/-5.6 mm Hg (with 20.0% O2) to 28.9+/-3.6 mm Hg (n = 4; P < 0.001). Intravenous injections of 500 mg dorzolamide increased ONP(O)2 from 16.4+/-6.1 mm Hg to 26.9+/-12.2 mm Hg, or 52.5%+/-21.2% (n = 5; P = 0.017). A dose-dependent effect on ONP(O)2 was seen with intravenous dorzolamide doses of 1000, 500, 250, 125, 63, 27, 15, and 6 mg. Intravenous injections of 500 mg acetazolamide increased ONP(O)2 from 23.6+/-9.5 mm Hg to 30.9+/-10.0 mm Hg (n = 6; P < 0.001), and a dose-dependent effect was seen with doses of 1000, 500, 250, 125, 31, and 15 mg. CONCLUSIONS: ONP(O)2 is significantly increased by the carbonic anhydrase inhibition of dorzolamide and acetazolamide, and the effect is dose dependent. These data demonstrate for the first time a direct effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on ONP(O)2.  (+info)

A review of the pharmacology and clinical activity of new chemotherapy agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer. (34/1894)

Colorectal carcinoma is an important cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. 5-fluorouracil has been the major chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma for the past four decades. This regimen is noncurative, and its impact on survival is unclear. Attempts at identifying more effective chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer have yielded oral formulations and prodrugs of 5-fluorouracil with apparently equivalent efficacy. Specific thymidylate synthase inhibitors are now available. Platinum analogues with activity in colorectal carcinoma, and no cross-resistance to the antimetabolites have also been developed. The topoisomerase I inhibitors represent a new class of agents with a novel mechanism of action. These agents are in phase II and Phase III clinical trials, others have been approved for clinical use within the last 3 years.  (+info)

Enzyme prodrug gene therapy: synergistic use of the herpes simplex virus-cellular thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system and thymidylate synthase inhibitors for the treatment of colon cancer. (35/1894)

The goal of this study was to improve the therapeutic index of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system by the addition of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors. For this, we assessed the potential of GCV to synergistically interact with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), ZD1694 (Tomudex), and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in HSV-tk-expressing murine MC38 STK and human HT-29 STK colon carcinoma cell lines. Synergistic cell killing was observed in a clonogenic assay over most of the cytotoxic dose range by the median-effect principle of Chou and Talalay (T. C. Chou and P. Talalay, Adv. Enzyme Regul., 22: 27-55, 1984). In a s.c. HT-29 STK xenograft tumor model, we demonstrated that the combination of GCV and 5-FU resulted in statistically significant enhanced animal survival over single-agent treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of GCV and ZD1694 in association with the HSV-tk/GCV system was at least as effective as GCV/5-FU in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for the observed synergy is most likely attributable to the increased GCV phosphorylation in the presence of the tested TS inhibitors. Our data suggest that the HSV-tk/GCV metabolic suicide gene transfer system could serve as an adjuvant of the presently used TS inhibitors, thus potentially improving the efficacy of present cancer gene therapy approaches.  (+info)

Fas ligand is expressed on human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and it promotes apoptosis of T lymphocytes. (36/1894)

Recent reports have variously described expression of Fas ligand (FasL) or its absence in human tumors. The importance of the Fas-FasL mechanism for the immune evasion by tumors provided a strong rationale for the examination of FasL expression and function in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), which is one of the most immunosuppressive human cancers. Using immunostaining or immunoblotting, SCCHN cell lines and tumor biopsies were examined for the presence of the components of the Fas-FasL pathway and found to express Fas, as well as both the full-length and cleaved forms of FasL. By reverse transcription-PCR, mRNA for FasL and Fas were detected in all SCCHN tested, and cross-hybridization to radioactive Fas and FasL cDNA probes confirmed the specificity of amplification. To demonstrate that FasL expressed on cell surface of SCCHN cells was biologically active, various SCCHN lines were coincubated with the Fas-sensitive Jurkat T-cell lines or activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Tumor-induced apoptosis of T cells was dependent on the ratio of tumor cells: lymphocytes. It was significantly but only partially inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to FasL and antagonistic antibodies to FasR. Tumor-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the pretreatment of tumor cells with metalloproteinase inhibitors, which increased expression of FasL on tumor cells. Supernatants of tumor cells transduced with FasL also induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Thus, coincubation of SCCHN with Fas-sensitive lymphocytes can induce apoptosis of these lymphocytes, and the Fas/FasL pathway appears to be responsible, at least in part, for tumor-induced lymphocyte death. The data suggest that the Fas/FasL pathway is potentially immunosuppressive and may be involved in the escape of human carcinoma cells from immune destruction.  (+info)

Microbial desulfurization of alkylated dibenzothiophenes from a hydrodesulfurized middle distillate by Rhodococcus erythropolis I-19. (37/1894)

Rhodococcus erythropolis I-19, containing multiple copies of key dsz genes, was used to desulfurize alkylated dibenzothiophenes (Cx-DBTs) found in a hydrodesulfurized middle-distillate petroleum (MD 1850). Initial desulfurization rates of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and MD 1850 by I-19 were 5.0 and 2.5 micromol g dry cell weight(-1) min(-1), more than 25-fold higher than that for wild-type bacteria. According to sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis, thiophenic compounds accounted for >95% of the total sulfur found in MD 1850, predominantly Cx-DBTs and alkylated benzothiophenes. Extensive biodesulfurization resulted in a 67% reduction of total sulfur from 1,850 to 615 ppm S. XANES analysis of the 615-ppm material gave a sulfur distribution of 75% thiophenes, 11% sulfides, 2% sulfoxides, and 12% sulfones. I-19 preferentially desulfurized DBT and C1-DBTs, followed by the more highly alkylated Cx-DBTs. Shifting zero- to first-order (first-order) desulfurization rate kinetics were observed when MD 1850 was diluted with hexadecane. Apparent saturation rate constant (K(0)) and half-saturation rate constant (K(1)) values were calculated to be 2.8 micromol g dry cell weight(-1) min(-1) and 130 ppm, respectively. However, partial biocatalytic reduction of MD 1850 sulfur concentration followed by determination of initial rates with fresh biocatalyst led to a sigmoidal kinetic behavior. A competitive-substrate model suggested that the apparent K(1) values for each group of Cx-DBTs increased with increasing alkylation. Overall desulfurization rate kinetics with I-19 were affected by the concentration and distribution of Cx-DBTs according to the number and/or lengths of alkyl groups attached to the basic ring structure.  (+info)

Determinants of activity of the antifolate thymidylate synthase inhibitors Tomudex (ZD1694) and GW1843U89 against mono- and multilayered colon cancer cell lines under folate-restricted conditions. (38/1894)

The cytotoxicity and metabolic effects of two thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors, Tomudex (Raltitrexed, ZD1694) and GW1843U89, were studied in WiDr colon cancer cells under four different growth conditions: as standard monolayers and as postconfluent multilayers grown under either high (WiDr, 8.8 microM folic acid) or low (WiDr/F, 1 nM leucovorin) folate conditions. Both GW1843U89 and ZD1694 were 13-15-fold more active against WiDr/F than WiDr cells when cultured as monolayers (IC50s in WiDr/F cells were 0.22 and 0.39 nM, respectively). WiDr cells were markedly less sensitive to the drugs when grown as multilayers (4-15-fold), in contrast to the WiDr/F cells, which were equally sensitive. However, total growth inhibition could not be achieved in WiDr multilayers (concentration causing total growth inhibition > 10,000 nM), whereas in WiDr/F multilayers, it could be achieved at 0.42 nM ZD1694 and 150 nM GW1843U89. Growth conditions markedly affected the TS levels when using different enzyme assays. At nonsaturating substrate concentrations, the catalytic activity of TS was similar in mono- and multilayers grown under high folate conditions but lower in multilayers at saturating concentrations. In cells grown under low folate conditions, TS catalytic activity was 3-6-fold lower in multilayers than in monolayers. This was consistent with a decrease in the number of S-phase cells in multilayers. Western blotting revealed less pronounced (2-3-fold) differences in the TS protein content. Exposure of the cells for 24 h to the drugs increased the TS levels by 4-fold. Because this increase in TS levels might explain the decrease in sensitivity to the TS inhibitors, we measured TS inhibition (TSI) by the drugs in intact cells using the TS in situ assay. GW1843U89 was more active than ZD1694. However, after 4 h of exposure in WiDr/F mono- and multilayers, TSI was in the same range for both drugs [50% TSI (TSI50), 0.5-1.7 nM]. In WiDr cells, the TSI50 for ZD1694, but not GW1843U89, was 10 times higher in the multilayers as compared to the monolayers. Despite the increase in TS protein levels, the extent of TSI was similar or even more pronounced in both cell lines grown as either multi- or monolayers. Because the cells were grown under depleted and folate-rich conditions that may affect folate uptake, we measured folate transport using methotrexate (MTX) as the reference drug for the activity of the reduced folate carrier. MTX uptake was 4-fold lower in multilayers compared to monolayers in both WiDr and WiDr/F cells. Uptake of MTX was 5-fold more effective in WiDr/F cells than in WiDr cells in both mono-and multilayers. In conclusion, the resistance of WiDr multilayers to the novel antifolates ZD1694 and GW1843U89 may be due to the high folate medium concentrations, which may be responsible for impaired drug uptake along with less effective TSI. In contrast, WiDr/F monolayers and multilayers were very sensitive to these antifolates. These effects of folate homeostasis may explain some of the variable results seen in treatment of solid tumors with new antifolate TS inhibitors.  (+info)

Gordonia desulfuricans sp. nov., a benzothiophene-desulphurizing actinomycete. (39/1894)

The taxonomic position of two actinomycetes isolated from soil was established using a polyphasic approach. The organisms, designated 213ET and 213F, were found to have chemical and morphological properties consistent with their assignment to the genus Gordonia. Nearly complete sequences of the 16S rDNA genes of the two strains were determined following the isolation and direct sequencing of the amplified genes. The tested strains were found to have identical 16S rDNA sequences and formed a phylogenetic line within the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genus Gordonia that was most closely related to Gordonia rubropertincta DSM 43197T. However, DNA-DNA relatedness data showed that strain 213ET and Gordonia rubropertincta DSM 43197T belonged to distinct genomic species. Strains 213ET and 213F also shared an identical phenotypic profile which distinguished them from representatives of validly described Gordonia species. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strains 213ET and 213F merit recognition as a new species of Gordonia. The name proposed for the new species is Gordonia desulfuricans, for which the type strain is 213ET (= NCIMB 40816T).  (+info)

Circumvention of methotrexate resistance in childhood leukemia subtypes by rationally designed antifolates. (40/1894)

Cellular methotrexate (MTX) resistance may cause treatment failure in childhood common/preB-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (c/preB-ALL), T-lineage ALL (T-ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The ex vivo potency of several antifolates (MTX, trimetrexate [TMQ], GW1843U89, multitargeted antifolate [MTA], Raltitrexed, and ZD9331) was studied via in situ inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS). After short-term exposure, relapsed c/preB-ALL (rALL, n = 21), T-ALL (n = 22), and AML (n = 22) were 3-fold, 10-fold, and 6-fold less sensitive to MTX (P +info)