Retinal expression of a neo-self antigen, beta-galactosidase, is not tolerogenic and creates a target for autoimmune uveoretinitis.
Recent studies revealing active mechanisms of immune privilege in neural tissues have diminished the putative role of passive tolerance. To examine the significance of Ag localization in the retina on immune privilege, the immune responses of transgenic mice expressing high and low levels of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in the photoreceptor cells of the retina were compared with those of normal mice and those of mice expressing moderate levels of beta-gal systemically. Immunization with beta-gal induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis indistinguishable from that induced by known photoreceptor cell autoantigens, including destruction of photoreceptor cells, in transgenic mice with high level retinal expression. Retinal expression had no apparent effect on the immune responses to beta-gal, showing that tolerance was not elicited by levels of retinal beta-gal sufficient to serve as a target for autoimmune disease. Mice with systemic expression exhibited reduced lymphoproliferative responses following immunization with beta-gal and did not develop autoimmune disease. T cells prepared from normal mice immunized with beta-gal transferred experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis to the transgenic mice with high level retinal beta-gal expression, but no disease was found in mice with systemic transgene expression under these conditions. The results of our experiments are most consistent with sequestration being the primary mechanism of retinal immune privilege. The results also show that beta-gal can serve as an immunopathogenic neural autoantigen, and that T cells raised by immunization of normal mice with a foreign Ag can be immunopathogenic in certain transgenic recipients. (+info)
Endogenous galectins and effect of galectin hapten inhibitors on the differentiation of the chick mesonephros.
Galectins are galactoside-binding lectins. In the mesonephros of the chick embryo, the 16-kDa galectin is abundant in the glomerular and tubular basement membranes where it colocalizes with fibronectin and laminin. To test whether galectin-glycoprotein interactions could play a role in mesonephric development, the effects of the galectin hapten inhibitors thiodigalactoside (TDG) and lactose on the differentiation of the cultured mesonephros were investigated. When compared to control saccharide-free or maltose-treated cultures, mesonephroi cultured in the presence of TDG and lactose exhibited defects in tissue organization. These included a distorted tubule shape, pseudo-stratification of the tubular epithelium, and detachment of glomerular podocytes from the basement membrane. The presence of molecular differentiation markers in the developing mesonephros was investigated. In vivo, expression of the epithelial-specific cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is restricted to differentiated tubular epithelial cells, whereas the intermediate filament protein vimentin is present in mesonephrogenic mesenchyme and is undetectable in tubular epithelial cells. In mesonephroi cultured in the absence of sugars or in the presence of maltose, the expression pattern of these two marker molecules resembles that found in the mesonephros in vivo. In contrast, in the mesonephroi cultured in the presence of TDG and lactose, the epithelial tubular cells expressing E-cadherin also express vimentin. Re-expression of vimentin in the tubular epithelial cells could indicate a partial reversal to a mesenchymal phenotype. Results suggest that galectin-glycoprotein interactions in the basement membrane are important in the maintenance of the renal epithelial phenotype. Dev Dyn 1999;215:248-263. (+info)
A beta-D-galactoside binding protein from electric organ tissue of Electrophorus electricus.
Extracts of electric organ tissue of Electrophorus electricus contain a saccharide-binding protein, named electrolectin, which agglutinates trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes and is specifically inhibited by disaccharides containing nonreducing terminal beta-D-galactosyl residues. Electrolectin seems at least partially membrane-bound but is also found in soluble fractions of homoge-nates from which it can be purfied by affinity chromatography on cross-linked and desulfated agarose (ECD-Sepharose) as a protein of molecular weight 33,000. About 400 mg of electrolectin are present per kg of tissue. It has an affinity for lactose of 1.0 mM-1 and 5.5mM-1 as estimated, respectively, by hapten inhibition and fluorescence spectroscopy. Studies on the distribution of beta-D-galactoside-binding activity in animal tissues reveal particularly high levels in sheletal muscle tissue and in cultures of embryonic skeletal muscle and neuroblastoma cells. (+info)
The necessity of magnesium cation for acid assistance aglycone departure in catalysis by Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase.
1. Removal of Mg2+ from Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase slightly increases the rate of hydrolysis of galactosyl pyridinium salts, but decreases the rate of hydrolysis of arylgalactosides. 2. Fair correlation of logkcat. and log (Km) with the pKa of aglycone is now observed for arglygalactosides, as well as for glycosyl pyridinium salts. 3. Degalactosylation of Mg2+-free enzyme is the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl galactoside. 4. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects for both sets of substrates are consistent with the rate-determining generation of a glycosyl cation. 5. The pH-independent, SNl hydrolysis of 3,4-dinitrophenyl galactoside has been measured: it is as fast as that of the galactosyl 3-chloropyridinium ion. 6. Hydrolysis of these two substrates by Mg2+-free enzyme proceeds at very similar rates. 7. It is concluded that loss of both types of aglycone takes place, without acid catalysis, from the first ES complex of substrate and apoenzyme. 8. Data for galactosyl azide and thiopicrate confirm that neither charge nor change of atom is the cause of the differences in behavior between aryl galactosides and galactosylpyridinium salts. (+info)
A spectroscopic assay for the analysis of carbohydrate transport reactions.
A carbohydrate-transport assay was developed that does not require isotopically labelled substrates, but allows transport reactions to be followed spectrophotometrically. It makes use of a membrane system (hybrid membranes or proteoliposomes) bearing the transport system of interest, and a pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent aldose dehydrogenase [soluble glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH)] and the electron acceptor 2,6-dichloroindophenol (Cl2Ind) enclosed in the vesicle lumen. After transport across the vesicular membrane, the sugar is oxidized by sGDH. The accompanying reduction of Cl2Ind results in a decrease in A600. The assay was developed and optimized for the lactose carrier (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus, and both solute/H+ symport and exchange types of transport could be measured with high sensitivity in crude membranes as well as in proteoliposomes. To observe exchange transport, the membranes were preloaded with a nonoxidizable substrate analogue and diluted in assay buffer containing an oxidizable sugar. Transport rates measured with this assay are comparable with those obtained with the conventional assay using isotopically labelled substrates. The method is particularly suited for determining transport reactions that are not coupled to any form of metabolic energy such as uniport reactions, or for characterizing mutant proteins with a defective energy-coupling mechanism or systems with high-affinity constants for sugars. (+info)
Interaction of the lacZ beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli with some beta-D-galactopyranoside competitive inhibitors.
1. The location of the bivalent metal cation with respect to bound competitive inhibitors in Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase was investigated by proton magnetic resonance. 2. Replacement of Mg(2+) by Mn(2+) enhances both longitudinal and transverse relaxation of the methyl groups of the beta-d-galactopyranosyltrimethylammonium ion, and of methyl 1-thio-beta-d-galactopyranoside; linewidths are narrowed by increasing temperature. 3. The Mn(2+) ion is located 8-9A (0.8-0.9nm) from the centroid of the trimethylammonium group and 9A (0.9nm) from the average position of the methylthio protons. 4. The effective charge at the active site was probed by measurement of competitive inhibition constants (K(i) (o) and K(i) (+) respectively) for the isosteric ligands, beta-d-galactopyranosylbenzene and the beta-d-galactopyranosylpyridinium ion. 5. The ratio of inhibition constants (Q=K(i) (+)/K(i) (o)) obtained with 2-(beta-d-galactopyranosyl)-naphthalene and the beta-d-galactopyranosylisoquinolinium ion at pH7 with Mg(2+)-enzyme was identical, within experimental error, with that obtained with the monocyclic compounds. 6. The variation of Q for Mg(2+)-enzyme can be described by Q=0.1(1+[H(+)]/4.17x10(-10))/1+[H(+)]/10(-8)). 7. This, in the theoretical form for a single ionizable group, is ascribed to the ionization of the phenolic hydroxy group of tyrosine-501. 8. The variation of Q for Mg(2+)-free enzyme is complex, probably because of deprotonation of the groups normally attached to Mg(2+) as well as tyrosine-501. (+info)
Phosphorylation of HPr by the bifunctional HPr Kinase/P-ser-HPr phosphatase from Lactobacillus casei controls catabolite repression and inducer exclusion but not inducer expulsion.
We have cloned and sequenced the Lactobacillus casei hprK gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme HPr kinase/P-Ser-HPr phosphatase (HprK/P). Purified recombinant L. casei HprK/P catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system at the regulatory Ser-46 as well as the dephosphorylation of seryl-phosphorylated HPr (P-Ser-HPr). The two opposing activities of HprK/P were regulated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which stimulated HPr phosphorylation, and by inorganic phosphate, which stimulated the P-Ser-HPr phosphatase activity. A mutant producing truncated HprK/P was found to be devoid of both HPr kinase and P-Ser-HPr phosphatase activities. When hprK was inactivated, carbon catabolite repression of N-acetylglucosaminidase disappeared, and the lag phase observed during diauxic growth of the wild-type strain on media containing glucose plus either lactose or maltose was strongly diminished. In addition, inducer exclusion exerted by the presence of glucose on maltose transport in the wild-type strain was abolished in the hprK mutant. However, inducer expulsion of methyl beta-D-thiogalactoside triggered by rapidly metabolizable carbon sources was still operative in ptsH mutants altered at Ser-46 of HPr and the hprK mutant, suggesting that, in contrast to the model proposed for inducer expulsion in gram-positive bacteria, P-Ser-HPr might not be involved in this regulatory process. (+info)
Sugar recognition mutants of the melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli: possible structural information concerning the arrangement of membrane-bound helices and sugar/cation recognition site.
Melibiose carrier mutants, isolated by growing cells on melibiose plus the non-metabolizable competitive inhibitor thiomethyl-beta-galactoside (TMG), were studied to determine sugar and cation recognition abnormalities. Most of the mutants show good transport of melibiose but have lost the recognition of TMG. In addition, most mutants show little or no transport of lactose. Cation recognition is also affected as all of these mutants have lost the ability to transport protons with melibiose. The amino acids causing these mutations were determined by sequencing the melB gene on the plasmid. The mutations were located on helices I, IV, VII, X and XI. We propose that these five helices are in proximity with each other and that they line the sugar/cation transport channel. (+info)