Molecular cloning and expression of a mouse thiamin pyrophosphokinase cDNA.
Thiamin pyrophosphokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes the pyrophosphorylation of thiamin with adenosine 5'-triphosphate to form thiamin pyrophosphate. A mouse thiamin pyrophosphokinase cDNA clone (mTPK1) was isolated using a combination of mouse expressed sequence tag database analysis, a two-step polymerase chain reaction procedure, and functional complementation screening with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae thiamin pyrophosphokinase-deficient mutant (thi80). The predicted protein contained 243 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 27,068. When the intact mTPK1 open reading frame was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli lacking thiamin pyrophosphokinase, marked enzyme activity was detected in the bacterial cells. The corresponding 2.5-kilobase pair mRNA was expressed in a tissue-dependent manner and was found at relatively high levels in the kidney and liver, indicating that the mode of expression of mTPK1 genes differs with cell type. The expression of mTPK1 genes in cultured mouse neuroblastoma and normal liver cells was unaffected by the thiamin concentration in the medium (10 microM versus 3.0 nM). This is the first report on identification of the primary sequence for mammalian thiamin pyrophosphokinase. (+info)
Leigh's disease: significance of the biochemical changes in brain.
Analysis of five brains from patients with Leigh's disease demonstrates an accumulation of thiamine pyrophosphate and a deficiency of thiamine triphosphate. The enzyme which converts thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine triphosphate was normally active in two of these brains, suggesting that the inhibitor found in Leigh's disease is probably producing the observed neurochemical changes. Reasons for the histological similarity between Leigh's and Wernicke's diseases are suggested. (+info)
Cytochemical and stereological analysis of rat cortical astrocytes during development in primary culture. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol.
This study has investigated the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the qualitative and quantitative ultrastructure of proliferating and differentiated astrocytes in primary cultures as well as on the cytochemical activity of several subcellular phosphatase markers, including acid phosphatase, uridine diphosphatase, thiamine pyrophosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The astrocytes were obtained from 21-day-fetuses of both control and alcohol-fed rats. Our results show that several cell components, such as mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes, exhibit qualitative and/or quantitative ultrastructural changes during the process of astrocyte maturation. In some cases these morphological changes are accompanied by variations in the cytochemical activity of enzymes located in these and other cell components, suggesting that these enzymes, and therefore the functional state of these organelles, are modulated during astrocyte development. When prenatally exposed to ethanol, both proliferating and differentiated astrocytes showed striking ultrastructural alterations compared with controls, including an increment of lysosomes as well as a decrease in the values of stereological parameters relative to mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Cytochemical analysis of these cells indicates that prenatal exposure to ethanol decreased the activities of all the enzymes tested, except for acid phosphatase, which was increased in both groups of treated astrocytes. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to ethanol could affect astrocytes during development in two different but probably complementary ways: a) by causing a delay in astrocyte maturation and, b) by inducing a direct toxic effect on these cells. (+info)
Ultracytochemical studies on Trichomonas hominis.
The results of ultracytochemical studies on Trichomonas hominis showed that ACPase and CMPase were mainly located in the mature face sacs of the primary lysosomes, digestive vacuoles, as well as in the parabasal body. TPPase and NADPase were found in the saccules at the mature face and the intermediate saccules of parabasal body respectively. This study revealed that T. hominis had well-developed parabasal bodies. Negative COase and catalase reactions indicated that T. hominis lacked both mitochondria and microbody. Hydrogenosome was stained well with the Ur-Pb-Cu impregnation technique. (+info)
Structural and histochemical studies of Golgi complex differentiation in salivary gland cells during Drosophila development.
Morphological alterations in the Golgi complex (GC) and changes in the distribution of acid phosphatase (AcPase), thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase), complex carbohydrates and reduced osmium tetroxide compounds in this organelle were studied in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila during larval and prepupal development. The morphology and the AcPase, TPPase and complex carbohydrates cytochemical patterns of the Golgi complex varied characteristically during cell differentiation. At the early 3rd instar period the Golgi complex consisted mainly of vesiculated cisternae, and AcPase activity was observed in all cisternae but not in the secretory granules. As development proceeded to the late 3rd instar the Golgi complex displayed its typical appearance, consisting of four to six cisternae, and only the two to three cisternae towards the trans-face as well as the trans-Golgi network and some of the immature secretory granules exhibited AcPase reactivity. In the course of a 'wave' of production of the 'glue' secretory granules proceeding proximally through the gland, the number of AcPase positive cisternae changed correspondingly. After secretion of the 'glue' secretory granules, the size of the Golgi complex decreased and almost all cisternae displayed AcPase reactivity. The detection of TPPase activity presented some specificity problems, since staining was observed not only in the GC cisternae but in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and microvilli. The reaction products were seen in a few GC vesicles during the early 3rd instar and in the trans side of the organelle at the end of the 3rd instar. During production of the secretory granules, every GC cisterna was intensely stained. These results agree with previous findings suggesting that AcPase and TPPase in secretory cells may be primarily involved in the processing of exportable proteins. The vicinal (vic)-glycol groups of the complex carbohydrates were detected using the periodic acid/thiocarbohydrazide/silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) technique. During synthesis of the 'glue' secretory granules, the reaction products were observed over the GC cisternae and the trans-Golgi network, with increasing intensity from the cis to the trans side of the organelle. No PA-TCH-SP staining was observed over the GC cisternae during the early 3rd instar. Following discharge of the 'glue' secretory granules, all GC cisternae displayed uniform PA-TCH-SP staining. After OsO4 impregnation, the reaction products were observed mainly in ER and mitochondria and rarely in the GC. In numerous cells, only the mitochondria were stained, while in many cases the ER of neighboring cells exhibited differential staining.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info)
Mutational analysis of ThiH, a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) protein superfamily.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential cofactor for all forms of life. In Salmonella enterica, the thiH gene product is required for the synthesis of the 4-methyl-5-beta hydroxyethyl-thiazole monophosphate moiety of TPP. ThiH is a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) superfamily of proteins that is characterized by the presence of oxygen labile [Fe-S] clusters. Lack of an in vitro activity assay for ThiH has hampered the analysis of this interesting enzyme. We circumvented this problem by using an in vivo activity assay for ThiH. Random and directed mutagenesis of the thiH gene was performed. Analysis of auxotrophic thiH mutants defined two classes, those that required thiazole to make TPP (null mutants) and those with thiamine auxotrophy that was corrected by either L-tyrosine or thiazole (ThiH* mutants). Increased levels of AdoMet also corrected the thiamine requirement of members of the latter class. Residues required for in vivo function were identified and are discussed in the context of structures available for AdoMet enzymes. (+info)
Biochemical and electron microscopic studies have indicated that the Golgi apparatus responds to retinol. The purpose of this investigation was to visualize and record with living cells the rapidity of the response to retinol. A rapid response of the Golgi apparatus to retinol (1.75-17.5 mumol/L) added to the culture medium was observed using video-enhanced light microscopy with bovine mammary epithelial cells. The response was manifested within 1 min as a marked movement of membranes within the Golgi apparatus zone. In subsequent electron microscope preparations of the cells, only minor changes were observed and were restricted to increased numbers of normal-appearing membranes and vesicles associated with the trans Golgi apparatus face of the retinol-treated cells. (+info)
Cytochemical study of secretory process in transplantable insulinoma of syrian golden hamster.
Electron microscopy, including phosphatase cytochemistry, indicates that the secretory granules of an insulinoma producing proinsulin and insulin are packaged by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and especially by a specialized region of ER which we call GERL because of the spatial relationship of this region to the Golgi apparatus and its apparent role in producing lysosomes. The granules are not derived from the Golgi apparatus. Preliminary evidence suggests this may be true also of pancreatic beta-cells. (+info)