Defective high-affinity thiamine transporter leads to cell death in thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome fibroblasts.
We have investigated the cellular pathology of the syndrome called thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) with diabetes and deafness. Cultured diploid fibroblasts were grown in thiamine-free medium and dialyzed serum. Normal fibroblasts survived indefinitely without supplemental thiamine, whereas patient cells died in 5-14 days (mean 9.5 days), and heterozygous cells survived for more than 30 days. TRMA fibroblasts were rescued from death with 10-30 nM thiamine (in the range of normal plasma thiamine concentrations). Positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining suggested that cell death was due to apoptosis. We assessed cellular uptake of [3H]thiamine at submicromolar concentrations. Normal fibroblasts exhibited saturable, high-affinity thiamine uptake (Km 400-550 nM; Vmax 11 pmol/min/10(6) cells) in addition to a low-affinity unsaturable component. Mutant cells lacked detectable high-affinity uptake. At 30 nM thiamine, the rate of uptake of thiamine by TRMA fibroblasts was 10-fold less than that of wild-type, and cells from obligate heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype. Transfection of TRMA fibroblasts with the yeast thiamine transporter gene THI10 prevented cell death when cells were grown in the absence of supplemental thiamine. We therefore propose that the primary abnormality in TRMA is absence of a high-affinity thiamine transporter and that low intracellular thiamine concentrations in the mutant cells cause biochemical abnormalities that lead to apoptotic cell death. (+info
Cloning and characterization of the thiD/J gene of Escherichia coli encoding a thiamin-synthesizing bifunctional enzyme, hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase/phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase.
A 1.7 kb DNA fragment isolated from an E. coli genomic library was able to complement the thiamin requirement of strains carrying the thiM, thiJ and thiD mutations. The three genes encode hydroxyethylthiazole kinase, hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) kinase and phosphomethylpyrimidine (HMP-p) kinase, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1.7 kb fragment contained two ORFs of 708 bp and 801 bp. The former ORF complemented the thiM mutation and the latter ORF both the thiJ and thiD mutations. The latter ORF was cloned into the expression vector pET3a, and the encoded protein was purified through three successive column chromatographies. The purified protein was able to convert HMP to its monophosphate and the monophosphate to its pyrophosphate. These results suggest that the two distinct enzyme activities, HMP kinase and HMP-P kinase, are indeed a bifunctional enzyme encoded by a single gene, designated thiDIJ. (+info
Efficient sequence analysis of the six gene products (7-74 kDa) from the Escherichia coli thiamin biosynthetic operon by tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry.
The 10(5) resolving power and MS/MS capabilities of Fourier-transform mass spectrometry provide electrospray ionization mass spectra containing >100 molecular and fragment ion mass values of high accuracy. Applying these spectra to the detection and localization of errors and modifications in the DNA-derived sequences of proteins is illustrated with the thiCEFSGH thiamin biosynthesis operon from Escherichia coli. Direct fragmentation of the multiply-charged intact protein ions produces large fragment ions covering the entire sequence; further dissociation of these fragment ions provides information on their sequences. For ThiE (23 kDa), the entire sequence was verified in a single spectrum with an accurate (0.3 Da) molecular weight (Mr) value, with confirmation from MS/MS fragment masses. Those for ThiH (46 kDa) showed that the Mr value (1 Da error) represented the protein without the start Met residue. For ThiF (27 kDa), MS/MS localized a sequence discrepancy to a 34 residue peptide. The first 107 residues of ThiC (74 kDa) were shown to be correct, with C-terminal heterogeneity indicated. For ThiG (predicted Mr = 34 kDa), ESI/FTMS showed two components of 7,310.74 (ThiS) and 26,896.5 Da (ThiG); MS/MS uncovered three reading frame errors and a stop codon for the first protein. MS/MS ions are consistent with 68 fragments predicted by the corrected ThiS/ThiG DNA sequences. (+info
Overexpression of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thiocarboxylate: implications for protein semisynthesis and thiamin biosynthesis.
A facile and rapid method for the production of protein C-terminal thiocarboxylates on DNA-encoded polypeptides is described. This method, which relies on the mechanism of the cleavage reaction of intein-containing fusion proteins, can produce multi-milligram quantities of protein C-terminal thiocarboxylate quickly and inexpensively. The utility of this method for protein semisynthesis and implications for studies on the biosynthesis of thiamin are discussed. (+info
Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.
This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. (+info
Thiamine repression and pyruvate decarboxylase autoregulation independently control the expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDC5 gene.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PDC5 encodes the minor isoform of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc). In this work we show that expression of PDC5 but not that of PDC1, which encodes the major isoform, is repressed by thiamine. Hence, under thiamine limitation both PDC1 and PDC5 are expressed. PDC5 also becomes strongly expressed in a pdc1delta mutant. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of whole protein extracts shows that thiamine limitation stimulates the production of THI gene products and of Pdc5p. Deletion of PDC1 only stimulates production of Pdc5p. We conclude that the stimulation of PDC5 expression in a pdc1delta mutant is not due to a response to thiamine limitation. (+info
Rereplication phenomenon in fission yeast requires MCM proteins and other S phase genes.
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe can be induced to perform multiple rounds of DNA replication without intervening mitoses by manipulating the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase p34(cdc2). We have examined the role in this abnormal rereplication of a large panel of genes known to be involved in normal S phase. The genes analyzed can be grouped into four classes: (1) those that have no effect on rereplication, (2) others that delay DNA accumulation, (3) several that allow a gradual increase in DNA content but not in genome equivalents, and finally, (4) mutations that completely block rereplication. The rereplication induced by overexpression of the CDK inhibitor Rum1p or depletion of the Cdc13p cyclin is essentially the same and requires the activity of two minor B-type cyclins, cig1(+) and cig2(+). In particular, the level, composition, and localization of the MCM protein complex does not alter during rereplication. Thus rereplication in fission yeast mimics the DNA synthesis of normal S phase, and the inability to rereplicate provides an excellent assay for novel S-phase mutants. (+info
Characterization and hormonal modulation of immunoreactive thiamin carrier protein secreted by adult rat Leydig cells in vitro.
Leydig cells isolated from adult rats and maintained under defined conditions in culture secrete a protein of molecular weight (Mr) 70 000 which is immunologically similar to chicken thiamin carrier protein (TCP). Synthesis of immunoreactive TCP by these cells is demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine incorporated, newly synthesized proteins with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to chicken TCP. The amount of immunoreactive TCP secreted into the culture supernatant is quantitated by using a specific radioimmunoassay. Under the influence of LH, secretion of immunoreactive TCP is enhanced 3-fold and can be inhibited by up to 70% with aromatase inhibitor (1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione). Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger in the sequence of events involved in LH-induced elevation of immunoreactive TCP in Leydig cells. The effects of exogenous estradiol-17beta and diethylstilbestrol are comparable in terms of stimulation of secretion of immunoreactive TCP by these cells. Tamoxifen brought about a 70% decrease in the elevated levels of immunoreactive TCP. These results suggest that estrogen mediates immunoreactive TCP induction in hormonally stimulated adult rat Leydig cells. (+info