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(1/2044) Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow.

To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates.  (+info)

(2/2044) The role of free serum tryptophan in the biphasic effect of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid.

1. Acute administration of ethanol exerts a biphasic effect on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. Both effects are associated with corresponding changes in the availability of circulating free tryptophan. 2. The initial increases in the above concentrations are prevented by ergotamine, are unaltered by allopurinol and are potentiated by theophylline, whereas the later decreases are prevented by both ergotamine and allopurinol. 3. It is suggested that the initial enhancement by ethanol of brain tryptophan metabolism is caused by catecholamine-mediated lipolysis followed by displacement of protein-bound serum tryptophan, whereas the activation of liver tryptophaan pyrrolase, which is produced by the same mechanism, leads to the later decreases in the brain concentrations of tryptophan and its metabolites. 4. The initial effects of ethanol can be reproduced by an equicaloric dose of sucrose, and a comparison of the two treatments alone could therefore be misleading. 5. The effects of ethanol on liver and brain tryptophan metabolism have also been examined in mice, and a comparison of the results with those previously reported suggests that the ethanol effects are strain-dependent.  (+info)

(3/2044) Engineering precision RNA molecular switches.

Ligand-specific molecular switches composed of RNA were created by coupling preexisting catalytic and receptor domains via structural bridges. Binding of ligand to the receptor triggers a conformational change within the bridge, and this structural reorganization dictates the activity of the adjoining ribozyme. The modular nature of these tripartite constructs makes possible the rapid construction of precision RNA molecular switches that trigger only in the presence of their corresponding ligand. By using similar enzyme engineering strategies, new RNA switches can be made to operate as designer molecular sensors or as a new class of genetic control elements.  (+info)

(4/2044) Effect of gemfibrozil in vitro on fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human adipose tissue.

Fat-mobilizing lipolysis was studied in rat and human adipose tissue during incubation in vitro by following the release of glycerol into the incubation medium. Gemfibrozil as well as clofibrate consistently and readily inhibited basal as well as noradrenaline-stimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in rat fat. With human adipose tissue no effect was observed with gemfibrozil and clofibrate on basal lipolysis. This may be due to the comparatively low rate of the nonstimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human tissue incubated in vitro. When lipolysis was stimulated with noradrenaline as well as isoprenaline, however, both gemfibrozil and clofibrate significantly reduced the fat-mobilizing lipolysis. This inhibition of lipolysis was however not observed in all studies. When lipolysis had been stimulated with theophylline, no inhibition of lipolysis was obtained with either compound. The possibility that reduced fat-mobilizing lipolysis in adipose tissue may cause a lowering of plasma triglycerides by reducing the flow of FFA to the liver is discussed in some detail. It is also suggested that inhibition of lipolysis may be accompanied by increased activity of lipoprotein lipase as well as an increase in the FIAT process. However, the pharmacological implication of the above-mentioned findings, particularly for gemfibrozil, must await further studies, as fairly large doses, around 1 mg/ml of incubation medium, were needed to obtain inhibition of fat-mobilizing lipolysis.  (+info)

(5/2044) A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission.

1. The present study was designed to characterize the adenosine receptors involved in the relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter, and to investigate the action of adenosine on the non adrenergic non cholinergic (NANC) excitatory ureteral neurotransmission. 2. In U46619 (10(-7) M)-contracted strips treated with the adenosine uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10(-6) M), adenosine and related analogues induced relaxations with the following potency order: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) = 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA) = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > adenosine > cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) = N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA) = 2-[p-(carboxyethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoaden os ine (CGS21680). 3. Epithelium removal or incubation with indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) and L-N(G)-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 3 x 10(-5) M), inhibitors of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO) synthase, respectively, failed to modify the relaxations to adenosine. 4. 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 10(-8) M) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 3 x 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M), A1 and A2A receptor selective antagonists, respectively, did not modify the relaxations to adenosine or NECA. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10(-5) M) and DPCPX (10(-6) M), which block A1/A2-receptors, reduced such relaxations. 5. In strips treated with guanethidine (10(-5) M), atropine (10(-7) M), L-NOARG (3 x 10(-5) M) and indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M), both electrical field stimulation (EFS, 5 Hz) and exogenous ATP (10(-4) M) induced contractions of preparations. 8-PT (10(-5) M) increased both contractions. DPCPX (10(-8) M), NECA (10(-4) M), CPCA, (10(-4) M) and 2-CA (10(-4) M) did not alter the contractions to EFS. 6. The present results suggest that adenosine relaxes the pig intravesical ureter, independently of prostanoids or NO, through activation of A2B-receptors located in the smooth muscle. This relaxation may modulate the ureteral NANC excitatory neurotransmission through a postsynaptic mechanism.  (+info)

(6/2044) First treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of admissions to hospital for asthma.

BACKGROUND: Early treatment with inhaled corticosteroids appears to improve clinical symptoms in asthma. Whether a first treatment initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can prevent major outcomes such as admission to hospital has yet to be studied. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a cohort of 13,563 newly treated asthmatic subjects selected from the databases of Saskatchewan Health (1977-1993) was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of a first treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in preventing admissions to hospital for asthma. Study subjects were aged between five and 44 years at cohort entry. First time users of inhaled corticosteroids were compared with first time users of theophylline for a maximum of 12 months of treatment. The two treatments under study were further classified into initial and subsequent therapy to minimize selection bias and confounding by indication. Odds ratios associated with hospital admissions for asthma were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Markers of asthma severity, as well as age and sex, were considered as potential confounders. RESULTS: Three hundred and three patients admitted to hospital with asthma were identified and 2636 matched controls were selected. subjects initially treated with regular inhaled corticosteroids were 40% less likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma than regular users of theophylline (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0). The odds ratio decreased to 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) when inhaled corticosteroids and theophylline were given subsequently. CONCLUSION: The first regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can reduce the risk of admission to hospital for asthma by up to 80% compared with regular treatment with theophylline. This is probably due, at least in part, to reducing the likelihood of a worsening in the severity of asthma.  (+info)

(7/2044) Evidence of hypoxic areas within the arterial wall in vivo.

The anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis states that an imbalance between the demand and supply of oxygen in the arterial wall is a key factor for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Direct in vitro and in situ measurements have shown that PO2 is decreased in the more deeply situated parts of the media, but the degree of hypoxia in vivo or the distribution of hypoxia along the arterial tree is not known. For this reason, we have developed a method for the detection of hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo by using a hypoxia marker, 7-(4'-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-butyl)-theophylline, that may be visualized by immunofluorescence. In the present study, we have used this method in rabbits with experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Our results indicate that zones of hypoxia occur at depth in the atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanism was probably an impaired oxygen diffusion capacity due to the thickness of the lesion, together with high oxygen consumption by the foam cells. Thus, we have for the first time demonstrated that hypoxia actually does exist in the arterial wall in vivo, lending support to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

(8/2044) A bioluminescence method for the mapping of local ATP concentrations within the arterial wall, with potential to assess the in vivo situation.

According to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis, an imbalance between the demand for and supply of oxygen and nutrients in the arterial wall is a key factor in atherogenesis. However, the energy metabolic state of the arterial tissue in vivo is largely unknown. We applied a bioluminescence method, metabolic imaging, to study local ATP concentrations in cryosections of normal pig and atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aorta. Some vessels were subjected to energy metabolic restrictions by incubation at different oxygen and glucose concentrations and others were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen to reflect the in vivo situation. Local ATP concentrations and the ATP distribution at a microscale was dependent on oxygen as well as glucose concentrations during incubation. ATP depletion was seen in the mid media of pig aorta in all incubations, but only at low oxygen concentration without glucose in the media of the thinner rabbit aorta. ATP-depleted zones were seen deep in pig media (>750 microm from the lumen) and in rabbit plaques (>300 micrometer+ from the lumen) even at high oxygen (pig 75% O2 and rabbit 21% O2) and glucose concentrations (5.6 mmol/L glucose). This observation probably illustrates an insufficient diffusion of glucose, which highlights the importance of studying the conditions for diffusion not only of oxygen but also of other metabolites in the arterial wall. In rapidly frozen vessels the medial ATP concentration was shown to be 0.6 to 0.8 micromol/g wet weight (both pig and rabbit aorta) and in pig aorta a gradient could be seen indicating higher ATP concentrations at the lumenal side. We propose that metabolic imaging, as applied to snap-frozen tissue, may be used to assess the energy metabolic situation in the arterial wall in vivo. The spatial resolution allows the detection of local variations within the arterial tree. However, steep concentration gradients (eg, near the border of the tissue) will be underestimated. The method may be extended to include determinations of glucose and lactate concentrations and will be used in parallel with an established method to assess hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo.  (+info)