Cytochrome P450 isoform selectivity in human hepatic theobromine metabolism.
AIMS: The plasma clearance of theobromine (TB; 3,7-dimethylxanthine) is known to be induced in cigarette smokers. To determine whether TB may serve as a model substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, or possibly other isoforms, studies were undertaken to identify the individual human liver microsomal CYP isoforms responsible for the conversion of TB to its primary metabolites. METHODS: The kinetics of formation of the primary TB metabolites 3-methylxanthine (3-MX), 7-methylxanthine (7-MX) and 3,7-dimethyluric acid (3,7-DMU) by human liver microsomes were characterized using a specific hplc procedure. Effects of CYP isoform-selective xenobiotic inhibitor/substrate probes on each pathway were determined and confirmatory studies with recombinant enzymes were performed to define the contribution of individual isoforms to 3-MX, 7-MX and 3,7-DMU formation. RESULTS: The CYP1A2 inhibitor furafylline variably inhibited (0-65%) 7-MX formation, but had no effect on other pathways. Diethyldithiocarbamate and 4-nitrophenol, probes for CYP2E1, inhibited the formation of 3-MX, 7-MX and 3,7-DMU by approximately 55-60%, 35-55% and 85%, respectively. Consistent with the microsomal studies, recombinant CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 exhibited similar apparent Km values for 7-MX formation and CYP2E1 was further shown to have the capacity to convert TB to both 3-MX and 3,7-DMU. CONCLUSIONS: Given the contribution of multiple isoforms to 3-MX and 7-MX formation and the negligible formation of 3,7-DMU in vivo, TB is of little value as a CYP isoform-selective substrate in humans. (+info)
Salicylates and sulfasalazine, but not glucocorticoids, inhibit leukocyte accumulation by an adenosine-dependent mechanism that is independent of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and p105 of NFkappaB.
The antiinflammatory action of aspirin generally has been attributed to direct inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but additional mechanisms are likely at work. These include aspirin's inhibition of NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus as well as the capacity of salicylates to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation (i.e., deplete ATP). At clinically relevant doses, salicylates cause cells to release micromolar concentrations of adenosine, which serves as an endogenous ligand for at least four different types of well-characterized receptors. Previously, we have shown that adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of other potent and widely used antiinflammatory agents, methotrexate and sulfasalazine, both in vitro and in vivo. To determine in vivo whether clinically relevant levels of salicylate act via adenosine, via NFkappaB, or via the "inflammatory" cyclooxygenase COX-2, we studied acute inflammation in the generic murine air-pouch model by using wild-type mice and mice rendered deficient in either COX-2 or p105, the precursor of p50, one of the components of the multimeric transcription factor NFkappaB. Here, we show that the antiinflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate, but not glucocorticoids, are largely mediated by the antiinflammatory autacoid adenosine independently of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by COX-1 or COX-2 or of the presence of p105. Indeed, both inflammation and the antiinflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate were independent of the levels of prostaglandins at the inflammatory site. These experiments also provide in vivo confirmation that the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids depend, in part, on the p105 component of NFkappaB. (+info)
Effects of adenosinergic agents on the vascular resistance and on the optic nerve response in the perfused cat eye.
The function of A1- and A2a-adenosine receptors in the control of vascular resistance and in the modulation of light-evoked neuronal activity was investigated in the isolated perfused cat eye. The A1 agonist CCPA, the A1 antagonist CPT, the A2a agonist CGS 21680 and the A2 antagonist DMPX were used. The agents were applied intra-arterially at concentrations in the low nanomolar to micromolar range during rod-selective photic stimulation. The flow rate of perfusate, reflecting vascular resistance and the light-evoked optic nerve response (ONR) were recorded. Our results show a vasodilating effect of both A1 and A2 agonists and a vasoconstricting effect of the respective antagonists. The dose-effect relationships are suggestive, however, of an A2a receptor-mediated mechanism. The amplitude of the ONR-ON component was decreased during application of both adenosine-agonists. Analysis of the dose-effect relationships and the blockade of the CCPA-induced decrease by CPT suggests that inhibition is mediated by A1 receptors. However, CGS 21680-mediated inhibition cannot be explained by unspecific binding at A1 receptors alone and suggests the involvement of inhibitory A2a receptors. (+info)
Caffeine interaction with fluorescent calcium indicator dyes.
We report that caffeine, in millimolar concentrations, interacts strongly with four common calcium indicator dyes: mag-fura-2, magnesium green, fura-2, and fluo-3. Fluorescence intensities are either noticeably enhanced (mag-fura-2, fura-2) or diminished (magnesium green, fluo-3). The caffeine-induced changes in the fluorescence spectra are clearly distinct from those of metal ion binding at the indicator chelation sites. Binding affinities for calcium of either mag-fura-2 or magnesium green increased only slightly in the presence of caffeine. Caffeine also alters the fluorescence intensities of two other fluorescent dyes lacking a chelation site, fluorescein and sulforhodamine 101, implicating the fluorophore itself as the interaction site for caffeine. In the absence of caffeine, variation of solution hydrophobicity by means of water/dioxane mixtures yielded results similar to those for caffeine. These observations suggest that hydrophobic substances, in general, can alter dye fluorescence in a dye-specific manner. For the particular case of caffeine, and perhaps other commonly used pharmacological agents, the dye interactions can seriously distort fluorescence measurements of intracellular ion concentrations with metal indicator dyes. (+info)
Sites of action for future therapy: an adenosine-dependent mechanism by which aspirin retains its antiinflammatory activity in cyclooxygenase-2 and NFkappaB knockout mice.
The antiinflammatory action of aspirin is generally attributed to inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, but additional mechanisms are at work. These include inhibition of NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus and the capacity of aspirin to promote accumulation of adenosine, a potent antiinflammatory autocoid. We tested these hypotheses in the murine air pouch model of acute inflammation in wild type mice and in cyclooxygenase 2 or NFkappaB knockouts. The antiinflammatory effects of aspirin, sodium salicylate and indomethacin did not correlate with inhibition of cyclooxygenase in either group. Indeed, aspirin retained its antiinflammatory properties even in COX-2 knockouts. Similarly, aspirin was no less antiinflammatory in mice rendered deficient for NFkappaB (p105) than in wild type controls. In contrast, dexamethasone lost its antiinflammatory capacity in NFkappaB knockouts. Aspirin and sodium salicylate dramatically increased concentrations of adenosine in exudates, a property shared with methotrexate and sulfasalazine. Removal of adenosine by adenosine deaminase or specific antagonism of adenosine at A(2)receptors completely reversed the antiinflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate, but not those of dexamethasone. This adenosine-dependent, antiinflammatory effect of aspirin points to another target of drug development. (+info)
Contributions of adenosine receptor activation to the ocular actions of epinephrine.
PURPOSE: Epinephrine is an effective drug for glaucoma treatment. However, the mechanisms responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of this compound are not completely understood. Adenosine is an autacoid released by all cells. This study evaluated the role of adenosine receptor activation in epinephrine-induced changes in ocular function. METHODS: Rabbits were pretreated topically with the moderately selective adenosine A1 antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT) or the adenosine A2 antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-l-propargylxanthine (DMPX). Epinephrine (500 microg) was then administered, and intraocular pressures (IOPs), pupil diameters (PDs), or total outflow facility was evaluated. In a separate group of animals, epinephrine or vehicle was administered, and aqueous humor samples obtained to evaluate changes in aqueous humor purine levels by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: In control animals, epinephrine produced a biphasic change in IOP: an initial rise in IOP of approximately 1 mm Hg from 1/2 to 1 hour followed by significant reduction in IOP of 8 to 9 mm Hg from 3 to 5 hours postadministration. These animals also exhibited a significant increase in PD of 2 to 3 mm from 1/2 to 2 hours postadministration. Pretreatment with 8-SPT (1000 microg) enhanced the initial rise in IOP, while significantly inhibiting the ocular hypotensive response. Pretreatment with 8-SPT also significantly enhanced the epinephrine-induced increase in PD. Inhibition of the epinephrine-induced reduction in IOP by 8-SPT was dose-related with an IC50 of 446 microg. Administration of 8-SPT alone did not significantly alter IOP or PD. The A2 antagonist DMPX did not alter the epinephrine-induced change in IOP or PD. In rabbits pretreated with 8-SPT, the epinephrine-induced increase in outflow facility was significantly reduced by 60% when compared with those in rabbits treated with epinephrine alone. In vehicle-treated rabbits, aqueous humor adenosine and inosine levels were 2.7 +/- 0.38 and 29 +/- 4.2 ng/100 microl, respectively. Three hours after epinephrine administration, adenosine and inosine levels had significantly increased to 11 +/- 1.6 and 66 +/- 4.4 ng/100 microl, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that in rabbits epinephrine administration stimulates adenosine release in the anterior segment. This rise in endogenous levels of adenosine then leads to the activation of ocular adenosine receptors and is in part responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of epinephrine. (+info)
Inhibition of fMLP-triggered respiratory burst of human monocytes by adenosine: involvement of A3 adenosine receptor.
Adenosine (Ado) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent acting on a variety of cell functions. However, its effects on human monocytes have been less well characterized. We investigated the effect of Ado and its receptor-specific analogs on NADPH oxidase activity with the use of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL). Adenosine inhibited fMLP-triggered NADPH oxidase activity with a maximal inhibition of 55+/-5%. IB-MECA, a selective A3 Ado receptor agonist reduced fMLP triggered NADPH oxidase activity more potently than the A2 receptor agonist CGS 2180 HCl (CGS) and the A1 Ado receptor agonist N-2-phenylethyl-adenosine (R-PIA). The inhibitory effect of Ado was reversed by neither the A1 Ado receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8(2-amino-4chlorophenyl)-xanthine (PACPX) nor the A2 Ado receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2-propynyl)xanthine (DMPX). It was significantly reversed by the A1/A3 Ado receptor antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC). Pretreatment of monocytes by cytochalasin B reversed the effect of Ado but not of dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP) on fMLP-CL response. KT 5720, a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor completely counteracted the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by dBcAMP but not by Ado. Using flow cytometry, we observed that Ado did not inhibit intracellular oxidative metabolism, whereas dBcAMP did. Furthermore, the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by Ado was not mediated by changes in cytosolic calcium. These results demonstrated that Ado inhibited NADPH oxidase activity via A3 Ado receptor independently of cAMP elevation or changes in calcium mobilization. (+info)
A role for extracellular adenosine in time-dependent reversal of long-term potentiation by low-frequency stimulation at hippocampal CA1 synapses.
The involvement of adenosine on the development of time-dependent reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) was investigated at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of rat hippocampal slices. A train of LFS (2 Hz, 10 min, 1200 pulses) had no long-term effects on synaptic transmission but produced lasting depression of previously potentiated responses. This reversal of LTP (depotentiation) was observed when the stimulus was delivered +info)