Isolation of salmonellas from sewage-polluted river water using selenite F and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate.
Selenite F broth and a modified Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth were investigated using sewage-polluted natural water as inocula. The modification of the tetrathionate medium was necessary as commercial alternatives would not allow multiplication of small numbers of salmonellas. The wide range of molar concentrations in different tetrathionate broths was emphasized. Selenite F broth was more efficient than Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth, in our hands, with the material tested. Direct inoculation of the enrichment media was used. Each of the two media examined had a bias towards selection of certain serotypes. If possible, both enrichment broths should be used to obtain maximum information. (+info)
The alternative electron acceptor tetrathionate supports B12-dependent anaerobic growth of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium on ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol.
Synthesis of cobalamin de novo by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and the absence of this ability in Escherichia coli present several problems. This large synthetic pathway is shared by virtually all salmonellae and must be maintained by selection, yet no conditions are known under which growth depends on endogenous B12. The cofactor is required for degradation of 1,2-propanediol and ethanolamine. However, cofactor synthesis occurs only anaerobically, and neither of these carbon sources supports anaerobic growth with any of the alternative electron acceptors tested thus far. This paradox is resolved by the electron acceptor tetrathionate, which allows Salmonella to grow anaerobically on ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol by using endogenously synthesized B12. Tetrathionate provides the only known conditions under which simple cob mutants (unable to make B12) show a growth defect. Genes involved in this metabolism include the ttr operon, which encodes tetrathionate reductase. This operon is globally regulated by OxrA (Fnr) and induced anaerobically by a two-component system in response to tetrathionate. Salmonella reduces tetrathionate to thiosulfate, which it can further reduce to H2S, by using enzymes encoded by the genes phs and asr. The genes for 1,2-propanediol degradation (pdu) and B12 synthesis (cob), along with the genes for sulfur reduction (ttr, phs, and asr), constitute more than 1% of the Salmonella genome and are all absent from E. coli. In diverging from E. coli, Salmonella acquired some of these genes unilaterally and maintained others that are ancestral but have been lost from the E. coli lineage. (+info)
Detection of salmonellae in chicken feces by a combination of tetrathionate broth enrichment, capillary PCR, and capillary gel electrophoresis.
This report describes a rapid detection procedure for salmonellae from chicken feces by the combination of tetrathionate primary enrichment (preenrichment [PE])-bacterial lysis-capillary PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis. Pure Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 64K was reisolated and detected by capillary PCR after buffered peptone water and nutrient broth, tetrathionate broth base Hajna (TTBH), and tetrathionate broth (TTB) preenrichments. When the same culture was mixed with intestinal homogenate, bacteriological reisolation and capillary PCR detection was achieved only by TTBH and TTB preenrichments. Capillary gel electrophoresis revealed that a Salmonella genus-specific 281-bp PCR product was detected when Salmonella strains but not non-Salmonella strains were tested. The detection limit of capillary PCR with whole-cell DNA extracted from pure Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis 64K, Typhimurium LT2-CIP60-62, and Gallinarum 64K was 3, 3, and 9 CFU ml(-1), respectively. The detection limit of capillary PCR from whole-cell DNA extracted from intestinal homogenate artificially contaminated with the same three strains was 3, 3, and 7 CFU ml(-1), respectively. We compared the results of the capillary PCR and bacteriological examination from the natural samples. Thirty-five of 53 naturally contaminated samples produced a specific PCR product. In 9 of the 35 PCR-positive samples, Salmonella could not be detected bacteriologically either by PE or a primary and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) combination. In the 18 PCR-negative samples, 4 samples were found to harbor Salmonella by both PE and DSE and 14 samples were positive after DSE. Fifty-three additional intestinal homogenate samples, which were negative by their PE and DSE in bacteriological examination, were found to be also negative by their PCRs. The total time required to detect Salmonella with the capillary PCR method we used was approximately 20 h. If samples are from clinically diseased birds, the total time for PCR and detection is reduced to 2 h since the 18-h PE is not required. These results indicate that TTB enrichment, bacterial lysis, and genus-specific capillary PCR combined with capillary gel electrophoresis constitute a sensitive and selective procedure which has the potential to rapidly identify Salmonella-infected flocks. (+info)
Comparison of GN Hajna and tetrathionate as initial enrichment for salmonellae recovery from swine lymph nodes and cecal contents collected at slaughter.
An epidemiologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of salmonellae in swine from 5 farms of an integrated swine operation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recovery efficiencies for salmonellae from swine lymph nodes and cecal contents when GN Hajna and tetrathionate were compared as initial enrichments. Salmonellae were isolated from 61% of 645 pigs at slaughter; 324 positive cultures were from lymph nodes, and 224 were from cecal contents. Frequently, pigs had salmonellae isolated from both the lymph nodes and cecal contents. Total isolations, regardless of source, were similar for GN Hajna (247) and tetrathionate (301). There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the number of isolations from lymph nodes when GN Hajna enrichment was compared with tetrathionate enrichment (174 vs. 150). However, there was a significant (P < 0.05) advantage of utilizing tetrathionate when compared with GN Hajna for isolations from cecal contents (151 vs. 73). (+info)
N-terminal insertion of alamethicin in channel formation studied using its covalent dimer N-terminally linked by disulfide bond.
Alamethicin is supposed to form helix-bundle-type channels by inserting the N terminus into bilayer lipid membranes under sufficient voltages. The N-terminal insertion has been studied with an alamethicin dimer (di-alm) N-terminally linked by a disulfide bond and by the asymmetric addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) and tetrathionate (TT) to the membrane. When di-alm was added to the cis-side membrane, it forms long-lasting channels with the lifetime tau of about 100 ms at cis-positive voltages. The lifetime was reduced to a few milliseconds by addition of DTT to the cis-side membrane, indicating that most of the channels were formed by the monomers (alm-SH) that resulted from the cleavage of the disulfide bond in di-alm. The succeeding addition of TT to the trans-side produced channels of tau=10-20 ms besides the channels of alm-SH. The results suggested that TT reacted with the N-terminal thiol group of alm-SH located at the trans-side of the membrane to alter the lifetime. The N-terminal insertion of alamethicin helices by voltage activation, therefore, was confirmed. (+info)
Reclassification of Sulfolobus hakonensis Takayanagi et al. 1996 as Metallosphaera hakonensis comb. nov. based on phylogenetic evidence and DNA G+C content.
The taxonomic status of Sulfolobus hakonensis Takayanagi et al. 1996 was re-evaluated by fresh determinations of the 16S rDNA sequence and G+C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain, HO1-1(T). The 16S rDNA sequence of strain HO1-1(T) showed 98 % similarity to those of two Metallosphaera species and only +info)
Diagnostic real-time PCR for detection of Salmonella in food.
A robust 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR was developed and validated in-house for the specific detection of Salmonella in food. The assay used specifically designed primers and a probe target within the ttrRSBCA locus, which is located near the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 at centisome 30.5. It is required for tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella. The assay correctly identified all 110 Salmonella strains and 87 non-Salmonella strains tested. An internal amplification control, which is coamplified with the same primers as the Salmonella DNA, was also included in the assay. The detection probabilities were 70% when a Salmonella cell suspension containing 10(3) CFU/ml was used as a template in the PCR (5 CFU per reaction) and 100% when a suspension of 10(4) CFU/ml was used. A pre-PCR sample preparation protocol including a preenrichment step in buffered peptone water followed by DNA extraction-purification was applied when 110 various food samples (chicken rinses, minced meat, fish, and raw milk) were investigated for Salmonella. The diagnostic accuracy was shown to be 100% compared to the traditional culture method. The overall analysis time of the PCR method was approximately 24 h, in contrast to 4 to 5 days of analysis time for the traditional culture method. This methodology can contribute to meeting the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods. Studies are planned to assess the interlaboratory performance of this diagnostic PCR method. (+info)
Post-translational regulation of mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase via a low redox potential cysteine-sulfenate in the maintenance of redox homeostasis.
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) (EC 188.8.131.52), a multifunctional enzyme, catalyzes a transsulfuration from mercaptopyruvate to pyruvate in the degradation process of cysteine. A stoichiometric concentration of hydrogen peroxide and of tetrathionate (S(4)O(6)(2-)) inhibited rat MST (k(i) = 3.3 min(-1), K(i) = 120.5 microM and k(i) = 2.5 min(-1), K(i) = 178.6 microM, respectively). The activity was completely restored by dithiothreitol or thioredoxin with a reducing system containing thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, but glutathione did not restore the activity. On the other hand, an excess molar ratio dose of hydrogen peroxide inactivated MST. Oxidation with a stoichiometric concentration of hydrogen peroxide protected the enzyme against reaction by iodoacetate, which modifies a catalytic Cys(247), suggesting that Cys(247) is a target of the oxidants. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis revealed that hydrogen peroxide- and tetrathionate-inhibited MSTs were increased in molecular mass consistent with the addition of atomic oxygen and with a thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(-)), respectively. Treatment with dithiothreitol restored modified MST to the original mass. These findings suggested that there was no nearby cysteine with which to form a disulfide, and mild oxidation of MST resulted in formation of a sulfenate (SO(-)) at Cys(247), which exhibited exceptional stability and a lower redox potential than that of glutathione. Oxidative stress decreases MST activity so as to increase the amount of cysteine, a precursor of thioredoxin or glutathione, and furthermore, these cellular reductants restore the activity. Thus the redox state regulates MST activity at the enzymatic level, and on the other hand, MST controls redox to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. (+info)