Nitration modifying function of proteins, hormones and neurotransmitters.
Several lines of evidence have been accumulated for occurrence of nitration in vivo. In this brief review, we summarized nitration studies on functional changes of proteins, hormones and neurotransmitters, before as well as after the discovery of peroxynitrite. Most of nitrated molecules exhibit less active properties than the parental compounds. It is still unknown whether nitration is merely a footprint of oxidative stress, an important pathway of nitric oxide metabolisms or a part of integral processes for maintaining cellular homeostasis. (+info)
Direct energy transfer to study the 3D structure of non-native proteins: AGH complex in molten globule state of apomyoglobin.
The direct energy transfer technique was modified and applied to probe the relative localization of apomyoglobin A-, G- and H-helixes, which are partly protected from deuterium exchange in the equilibrium molten globule state and in the molten globule-like kinetic intermediate. The non-radiative transfer of tryptophan electronic energy to 3-nitrotyrosine was studied in different conformational states of apomyoglobin (native, molten globule, unfolded) and interpreted in terms of average distances between groups of the protein chain. The experimental data show that the distance between the middle of A-helix and the N-terminus of G-helix as well as the distance between the middle of the A-helix and the C-terminus of the H-helix in the molten globule state are close to those in the native state. This is a strong argument in favor of similarity of the overall architecture of the molten globule and native states. (+info)
Peroxynitrite inactivates tryptophan hydroxylase via sulfhydryl oxidation. Coincident nitration of enzyme tyrosyl residues has minimal impact on catalytic activity.
Tryptophan hydroxylase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis, is inactivated by peroxynitrite in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is prevented by molecules that react directly with peroxynitrite such as dithiothreitol, cysteine, glutathione, methionine, tryptophan, and uric acid but not by scavengers of superoxide (superoxide dismutase), hydroxyl radical (Me(2)SO, mannitol), and hydrogen peroxide (catalase). Assuming simple competition kinetics between peroxynitrite scavengers and the enzyme, a second-order rate constant of 3.4 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 was estimated. The peroxynitrite-induced loss of enzyme activity was accompanied by a concentration-dependent oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups. Peroxynitrite-modified tryptophan hydroxylase was resistant to reduction by arsenite, borohydride, and dithiothreitol, suggesting that sulfhydryls were oxidized beyond sulfenic acid. Peroxynitrite also caused the nitration of tyrosyl residues in tryptophan hydroxylase, with a maximal modification of 3.8 tyrosines/monomer. Sodium bicarbonate protected tryptophan hydroxylase from peroxynitrite-induced inactivation and lessened the extent of sulfhydryl oxidation while causing a 2-fold increase in tyrosine nitration. Tetranitromethane, which oxidizes sulfhydryls at pH 6 or 8, but which nitrates tyrosyl residues at pH 8 only, inhibited tryptophan hydroxylase equally at either pH. Acetylation of tyrosyl residues with N-acetylimidazole did not alter tryptophan hydroxylase activity. These data suggest that peroxynitrite inactivates tryptophan hydroxylase via sulfhydryl oxidation. Modification of tyrosyl residues by peroxynitrite plays a relatively minor role in the inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase catalytic activity. (+info)
Peroxynitrite inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase: mediation by sulfhydryl oxidation, not tyrosine nitration.
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine (DA). TH activity is significantly diminished in Parkinson's disease (PD) and by the neurotoxic amphetamines, thereby accentuating the reductions in DA associated with these conditions. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the damage to DA neurons seen in PD and in reaction to amphetamine drugs of abuse, so we investigated the hypothesis that peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) could interfere with TH catalytic function. ONOO(-) caused a concentration-dependent inactivation of TH. The inactivation was associated with tyrosine nitration (maximum of four tyrosine residues nitrated per TH monomer) and extensive sulfhydryl oxidation. Tetranitromethane, which causes sulfhydryl oxidation at pH 6 and 8 but which nitrates tyrosines only at pH 8, inactivated TH equally at either pH. Bicarbonate protected TH from ONOO(-)-induced inactivation and sulfhydryl oxidation but increased significantly tyrosine nitration. PNU-101033 blocked ONOO(-)-induced tyrosine nitration in TH but could not prevent enzyme inactivation or sulfhydryl oxidation. Together, these results indicate that the inactivation of TH by ONOO(-) is mediated by sulfhydryl oxidation. The coincident nitration of tyrosine residues appears to exert little influence over TH catalytic function. (+info)
Lignin peroxidase initiates O2-dependent self-propagating chemical reactions which accelerate the consumption of 1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)propene.
Lignin peroxidase (LiP) has been used to study the C(alpha)-C(beta) cleavage of the propylene side chain in 1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)propene (DMPP) to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (veratraldehyde, VAD). Under an air atmosphere, LiP oxidized DMPP to VAD (27.8%) and 1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-one (DMPA, 8.7%), after 10 min of incubation. Dissolved O(2) was rapidly consumed during DMPP conversion, of which one-third was converted into superoxide. The remaining two-thirds of the consumed O(2) was involved in C(alpha)-C(beta) cleavage of DMPP to VAD and in self-propagating chemical reactions stimulating the consumption of DMPP. The involvement of peroxyl radicals, in the chemical consumption of DMPP, was confirmed by using the well-known peroxyl radical reductant Mn(2+). This metal ion severely inhibited the DMPP consumption rate under air, but did not affect the lower enzymic DMPP consumption rate under N(2). The substoichiometric requirement of LiP for H(2)O(2) during DMPP oxidation could be explained in part by dismutation of superoxide, but more importantly by direct chemical reactions of DMPP-derived peroxyl radicals with fresh DMPP. Another VAD-producing route was found by incubating the DMPP oxidation product, DMPA, with LiP. Under air the molar yield of VAD was 29.7%. In the absence of O(2), the C(alpha)-C(beta) cleavage of DMPA to VAD was strongly inhibited and side-chain coupling products (dimers) were formed instead. As a whole, the results suggest two new roles of O(2) in LiP-mediated oxidation of aromatic substrates. First, O(2) is responsible for the formation of reactive peroxyl intermediates, which can directly react with other substrate molecules and thereby accelerate consumption rates. Secondly, O(2) can prevent coupling reactions by lowering the pool of carbon-centred radicals accumulating during LiP catalysis. (+info)
Interactions of bovine neurophysins with neurohypophyseal hormones. On the role of tyrosine-49.
Reaction of tetranitromethane with the lone tyrosine residue of bovine neurophysin I and II, tyrosine-49, gave nitro derivatives of these proteins which were obtained in a highly purified form by preparative electrophoresis. Equilibrium dialysis experiments indicated clearly that oxytocin binding remained essentially unaffected by the chemical modification of tyrosine-49. However, in the case of (8-lysine)vasopressin, the nitrated protein was found to bind only 1 hormone molecule in contrast to the 2 vasopressin molecules bound by the native protein. Ultraviolet absorption difference spectroscopy measurements between 250 nm and 300 nm indicated that upon binding of (2-phenylalanine, 8-lysine)vasopressin, tyrosine-49 of native neurophysin undergoes a change of microenvironment from less to more polar surroundings. Studies of the nitrotyrosyl-49 chromophore of neurophysin by ab sorption spectroscopy in the absence and presence of oxytocin or (8-lysine)vasopressin confirmed this finding. Since dimethylsulfoxide solvent perturbation studies suggested that in the Cys(Me)-Phe-Ile-NH2-neurophysin I complex, tyrosine-49 is more exposed to solvent than in neurophysin I alone, it is concluded that this residue is unmasked by conformational changes upon complex formation. (+info)
Evidence that light modulates protein nitration in rat retina.
As part of ongoing efforts to better understand the role of protein oxidative modifications in retinal pathology, protein nitration in retina has been compared between rats exposed to damaging light or maintained in the dark. In the course of the research, Western methodology for detecting nitrotyrosine-containing proteins has been improved by incorporating chemical reduction of nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, allowing specific and nonspecific nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity to be distinguished. A liquid chromatography MS/MS detection strategy was used that selects all possible nitrotyrosine peptides for MS/MS based on knowing the protein identity. Quantitative liquid chromatography MS/MS analyses with tetranitromethane-modified albumin demonstrated the approach capable of identifying sites of tyrosine nitration with detection limits of 4-33 fmol. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western detection, and mass spectrometric analyses, several different nitrotyrosine-immunoreactive proteins were identified in light-exposed rat retina compared with those maintained in the dark. Immunocytochemical analyses of retina revealed that rats reared in darkness exhibited more nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the photoreceptor outer segments. After intense light exposure, immunoreactivity decreased in the outer segments and increased in the photoreceptor inner segments and retinal pigment epithelium. These results suggest that light modulates retinal protein nitration in vivo and that nitration may participate in the biochemical sequela leading to light-induced photoreceptor cell death. Furthermore, the identification of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins from rats maintained in the dark, under non-pathological conditions, provides the first evidence of a possible role for protein nitration in normal retinal physiology. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of Staphylococcus aureus penicillinase.
The amino acid sequence of the penicillinase (penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase, EC 126.96.36.199) from Staphylococcus aureus strain PC1 was determined. The protein consists of a single polypeptide chain of 257 residues, and the sequence was determined by characterization of tryptic, chymotryptic, peptic and CNBr peptides, with some additional evidence from thermolysin and S. aureus proteinase peptides. A mistake in the preliminary report of the sequence is corrected; residues 113-116 are now thought to be -Lys-Lys-Val-Lys- rather than -Lys-Val-Lys-Lys-. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50056 (91 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)