This article provides background information on bacterial diseases and discusses those that are candidates for elimination or eradication. Only one disease, neonatal tetanus, is a strong candidate for elimination. Others, including Haemophilus influenzae b infection, leprosy, diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, congenital syphilis, trachoma and syphilis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. For all these diseases, eradication/elimination is not likely because of the characteristics of the disease and limitations in the interventions. (+info)
Circumcision and neonatal tetanus: disclosure of risk and its reduction by topical antibiotics.
BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have paradoxically suggested that circumcisions protect against neonatal tetanus (NNT), but these observations have not been adjusted for differences in the length of survival of cases and controls. METHODS: Boy cases (n = 133) and their sex-matched controls (n = 399) were extracted from a population-based study of NNT undertaken in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In the resulting file, circumcisions were censored such that analysis was restricted to only those that occurred before onset in cases or before age of onset in the matched case for controls. The effect of topical antibiotics in circumcision wounds was then evaluated. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, circumcision before onset posed a significant risk for NNT (matched odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0). The risk of NNT in those circumcised before onset and treated with topical antibiotics did not differ significantly from the referent group who had not been circumcised before onset (matched OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.2-6.8), whereas the lack of topical use was associated with significant risk (matched OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6). This suggests that topical antibiotics are likely to be highly effective in preventing NNT from circumcision wounds. We estimated an overall risk of about 16 fatal NNT cases per 1000 live boy births with circumcision wounds that were not protected by topical antibiotics, and that circumcision and umbilical wounds each accounted for about half of this overall risk in these boys. CONCLUSIONS: Topical antibiotics should be routinely applied to all wounds created by traditional circumcisions, to prevent NNT and sepsis from these frequently unsterile procedures. (+info)
Early and persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T helper dysfunction in blood and lymph nodes following acute HIV-1 infection.
Without potent antiretroviral therapy, most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons experience a progressive decline in CD4+ T cells and impairment in T helper function. It is unclear how soon after infection T cell dysfunction occurs. T helper responses were examined in blood and lymphoid tissue of 39 untreated patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Within the first 3 months, lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen, recall antigens, and HIV-1 antigens were impaired. After 6-9 months, responses to phytohemagglutinin and recall antigens improved. However, HIV-1-specific lymphoproliferation remained largely undetectable throughout 2 years of infection, and results were similar upon evaluation of lymphoid cells. Rare patients with HIV-1-specific responses had significantly lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than did nonresponders. These results indicate that T helper dysfunction occurs early after HIV-1 acquisition and that untreated individuals rarely recover HIV-specific helper responses; these findings lend support for early therapeutic intervention to prevent the destruction and further impairment of the T helper cells. (+info)
Experience with diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine in Japan.
In Japan, the morbidity rate for pertussis per 100,000 population was 147.6 in 1950 when whole cell pertussis vaccine was introduced but dropped to 0.2 in 1972 when routine immunization with a combined vaccine consisting of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and whole cell pertussis had been widely accepted. Thereafter, adverse reactions to the whole cell pertussis vaccine became a social problem and lowered the acceptance of the vaccine. As a result, the morbidity rate increased to 11.3 in 1979. Introduction of the safer yet efficacious acellular pertussis vaccine, consisting of mainly pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin, into the routine childhood vaccination in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in 1981 increased the acceptance rate. The lowest morbidity rate, 0.1, was achieved in 1993. During the next 16 years, almost all cases were in unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated persons. Regardless of whether whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine was used, > 90% of the reported pertussis cases were in children < 10 years of age until 1990. However, since 1991, the rate of pertussis in young adults 20-44 years of age has been clearly increasing. To control pertussis, booster vaccination with diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine in adults should be considered. (+info)
Determinants of mortality among children in the urban slums of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.
The growing slum population in the developing world is an increasing challenge for local health authorities. Little is known of the patterns of disease occurrence including treatment types offered in this population. The paper describes reported child mortality and its determinants, including the main diseases affecting children and treatments, in the slum population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. 1500 households in three slum communities were included in a cross-sectional survey. Reported death rates in the households per 1000 children (0-107 months) within the last year from the interview were 20.5 for boys and 27.0 for girls. More girls than boys died in infancy (age < 12 months). The most frequent reported causes of deaths were tetanus in infancy and diarrhoea among children aged < or = 12 months. Vaccination coverage (DPT, polio, measles and BCG) was 73% for children < 3 years of age. The results showed that gender difference in mortality may have been influenced by the patterns of treatment received during sickness and the choice of treatment was determined by the financial ability of the households. Household income, children's vaccinations, TT immunization of mothers and personal cleanliness appeared to be significantly associated with child mortality. Despite the relatively high vaccination coverage for this population, child mortality remained alarmingly high, indicating that socioeconomic and environmental conditions must be improved to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. (+info)
Neonatal tetanus associated with topical umbilical ghee: covert role of cow dung.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee have been incompletely evaluated epidemiologically. METHODS: Detailed information on ghee usage, including fuels used to heat it, was obtained from cases of NNT (n = 229) and their matched controls (n = 687) from a population-based study of NNT in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Design variables were created to evaluate the impact of different fuel sources on risk of ghee applications. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of all infants had ghee applied, and it was nearly always heated before application to umbilical wounds of newborns. After controlling for all factors found to be significantly associated with NNT in conditional logistic regression, only ghee that had always been heated with dried cow dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. Topical antimicrobials and ghee were never applied together. CONCLUSIONS: Ghee applications to umbilical wounds, when heated with 'clean' fuels, appear to pose no increased risk of NNT, although handling practices undoubtedly result in hazardous microbial contamination. In contrast, ghee heated with dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. The effective promotion of topical antimicrobials might help reduce ghee use, since the intended purpose of each is to enhance healing. (+info)
Delayed immunization against vaccine preventable diseases--factors responsible among children under 5 years of age.
In the present case-control study, out of the the eleven risk factors of delayed immunization, only seven, namely family size, sex, number of children < 5 years, material education, paternal education, distance from health centre and low socio-economic status were found to be significantly associated. The common causes for delayed immunization were negligence on part of parents, unawareness about the use of vaccine and sickness of child. Thus, health education of the parents is recommended. (+info)
Tetanus: study of 8,697 cases.
Records of 8,697 cases of tetanus seen over a period of 14 years are analysed. Overall mortality was 48.0%. Mortality in neonatal group was 86.38% whereas that in non-neonatal group it was 40.18%. Disease was seen more frequently in male than in female. Mortality in male was lower than in female. Incidence was highest in the first decade of life. Mortality was lowest (about 33%) in first two decades (excluding neonatal group). Mortality in neonatal group was highest (86.38%). Mortality was inversely related to length of incubation period. In cases with incubation period of 7 days or less, mortality was 58.26% in non-neonates and 94.15% in neonates. Mortality was very low (2.14%) in 2,100 cases who did not develop spasms. In cases with spasms mortality was inversely related to the length of period of onset. Temperature of 100 degrees F within first 24 hours of admission was an adverse factor and these cases had higher mortality. Cases were divided into five grades according to the severity. Mortality in each grade was significantly different from that in the other. Mortality was lower in otogenic tetanus while it was higher in post-abortion and post-injection tetanus. Tetanus following penetrating injury carried higher mortality whereas tetanus following abrasions had lower mortality. With head and face as the site of infection, mortality was low while it was high when the site of infection was a trunk. Results were similar with dose of A.T.S. ranging between 5,000 and 60,000 i.u. and tetanus immune globulin, whereas mortality was high with higher and lower dose of A.T.S. or with no A.T.S. Respiratory spasms, respiratory failure, respiratory complications and circulatory failure were the common causes of death. (+info)