Incidence and causes of tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors in long distance paddle canoeists.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and causes of acute tenosynovitis of the forearm of long distance canoeists. METHOD: A systematic sample of canoeists competing in four canoe marathons were interviewed. The interview included questions about the presence and severity of pain in the forearm and average training distances. Features of the paddles and canoes were determined. RESULTS: An average of 23% of the competitors in each race developed this condition. The incidence was significantly higher in the dominant than the nondominant hand but was unrelated to the type of canoe and the angle of the paddle blades. Canoeists who covered more than 100 km a week for eight weeks preceding the race had a significantly lower incidence of tenosynovitis than those who trained less. Environmental conditions during racing, including fast flowing water, high winds, and choppy waters, and the paddling techniques, especially hyperextension of the wrist during the pushing phase of the stroke, were both related to the incidence of tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Tenosynovitis is a common injury in long distance canoeists. The study suggests that development of tenosynovitis is not related to the equipment used, but is probably caused by difficult paddling conditions, in particular uneven surface conditions, which may cause an altered paddling style. However, a number of factors can affect canoeing style. Level of fitness and the ability to balance even a less stable canoe, thereby maintaining optimum paddling style without repeated eccentric loading of the forearm tendons to limit hyperextension of the wrist, would seem to be important. (+info)
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome: a prospective follow up and magnetic resonance imaging study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with "pure" remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome, and to investigate its relation with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the anatomical structures affected by inflammation in pure RS3PE syndrome. METHODS: A prospective follow up study of 23 consecutive patients with pure RS3PE syndrome and 177 consecutive patients with PMR diagnosed over a five year period in two Italian secondary referral centres of rheumatology. Hands or feet MRI, or both, was performed at diagnosis in 7 of 23 patients. RESULTS: At inspection evidence of hand and/or foot tenosynovitis was present in all the 23 patients with pure RS3PE syndrome. Twenty one (12%) patients with PMR associated distal extremity swelling with pitting oedema. No significant differences in the sex, age at onset of disease, acute phase reactant values at diagnosis, frequency of peripheral synovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome and frequency of HLA-B7 antigen were present between patients with pure RS3PE and PMR. In both conditions no patient under 50 was observed, the disease frequency increased significantly with age and the highest frequency was present in the age group 70-79 years. Clinical symptoms for both conditions responded promptly to corticosteroids and no patient developed rheumatoid arthritis during the follow up. However, the patients with pure RS3PE syndrome were characterised by shorter duration of treatment, lower cumulative corticosteroid dose and lower frequency of systemic signs/symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Hands and feet MRI showed evidence of tenosynovitis in five patients and joint synovitis in three patients. CONCLUSION: The similarities of demographic, clinical, and MRI findings between RS3PE syndrome and PMR and the concurrence of the two syndromes suggest that these conditions may be part of the same disease and that the diagnostic labels of PMR and RS3PE syndrome may not indicate a real difference. The presence of distal oedema seems to indicate a better prognosis. (+info)
Musculoskeletal manifestations in a population-based cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis.
OBJECTIVE: To define musculoskeletal manifestations occurring in a population-based cohort of patients with giant cell (temporal) arteritis (GCA). METHODS: The records of 128 patients with GCA diagnosed over a 42-year-period (1950-1991) in Olmsted County, MN, were reviewed for the presence and type of musculoskeletal manifestations, their relationship to the onset and course of GCA, and their response to treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (41%) developed polymyalgia rheumatica: 23 before, 17 concurrently with, and 13 after the diagnosis of GCA. Thirty patients (23%) developed 1 or more peripheral musculoskeletal manifestations. These included peripheral synovitis in 23 patients (6 of whom fulfilled criteria for rheumatoid arthritis), distal extremity swelling with pitting edema in 13, distal swelling without pitting in 5, tenosynovitis in 6, and carpal tunnel syndrome in 2. Fifty-seven episodes of peripheral manifestations occurred in the 30 patients at different times during the course of GCA. In most, the onset of PMR and peripheral manifestations was within 2 years of the diagnosis of GCA. CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal symptoms in GCA are common and varied. Most appear linked temporally to the underlying GCA, indicating that the nature of this illness and its clinical expression are broader than often considered. (+info)
Comparison of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of partial tears of finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: Finger extensor tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may lead to partial and eventually to complete tendon tears. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of sonography (SG) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize partial tendon tears. METHODS: Twenty-one RA patients with finger extensor tenosynovitis for more than 12 months underwent SG, MRI and surgical inspection, the latter being the gold standard. RESULTS: For partial tears, sensitivity and specificity were 0.27 and 0.83 for MRI, and 0.33 and 0.89 for SG, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.35 and 0.78 for MRI, and 0.50 and 0.80 for SG, respectively. Accuracy was 0.69 for MRI and 0.75 for SG. CONCLUSION: For visualization of partial finger extensor tendon tears in RA patients, SG performs slightly better than MRI, but both techniques are at present not sensitive enough to be used in daily practice. (+info)
Mycobacterium terrae: case reports, literature review, and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing.
Mycobacterium terrae infection can cause debilitating disease that is relatively resistant to antibiotic therapy. Two cases are presented, and data from an additional 52 reports from the literature are reviewed. Tenosynovitis of the upper extremity, often following trauma, was the most commonly reported presentation (59% of cases), with pulmonary disease occurring in an additional 26% of cases. Underlying medical problems were absent (44%) or not reported (28%) in 72% of the cases. One-half of the patients with upper extremity tenosynovitis were treated with local or systemic corticosteroids, before microbiological identification. Only one-half of the patients with tenosynovitis who were followed up for 6 months had clinical improvement or were cured. The other one-half of the patients required repeated debridement, tendon extirpation, or amputation. The best antimicrobial therapy for M. terrae infection is unknown but might include a macrolide antibiotic plus ethambutol and one other effective drug for at least 12 months after clinical response. Parenteral treatment with an aminoglycoside and surgery may be useful in selected cases. (+info)
A retinacular sling for subluxing tendons of the first extensor compartment. A case report.
Over-zealous release of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist for de Quervain's disease or other lesions such as ganglia, may result in volar subluxation of the tendons of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis. This is usually asymptomatic, but may occasionally become disabling. We describe an operation using part of the extensor retinaculum to stabilise such a subluxation. (+info)
Magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and scintigraphy of the finger joints: one year follow up of patients with early arthritis. The TIRA Group.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and erosion development of the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints by magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or suspected RA followed up for one year. Additionally, to compare the results with radiography, bone scintigraphy, and clinical findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty five patients were examined at baseline, of whom 34 were followed up for one year. Twenty one patients already fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA at baseline, five fulfilled the criteria only after one year's follow up, whereas eight maintained the original diagnosis of early unclassified polyarthritis. The following MRI variables were assessed at baseline and one year: synovial membrane hypertrophy score, number of erosions, and tenosynovitis score. RESULTS: MRI detected progression of erosions earlier and more often than did radiography of the same joints; at baseline the MRI to radiography ratio was 28:4. Erosions were exclusively found in patients with RA at baseline or fulfilling the ACR criteria at one year. At one year follow up, scores of MR synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and scintigraphic tracer accumulation had not changed significantly from baseline; in contrast, swollen and tender joint counts had declined significantly (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MRI detected more erosions than radiography. MR synovial membrane hypertrophy and scintigraphy scores did not parallel the changes seen over time in clinically assessed swollen and tender joint counts. Although joint disease activity may be assessed as quiescent by conventional clinical methods, a more detailed evaluation by MRI may show that a pathological condition is still present within the synovium. (+info)
The outcome of treatment of trigger thumb in children.
Our aim was to determine the outcome of the treatment of trigger thumb in children. There was a rate of spontaneous recovery of 49% in those children whose thumbs were observed before a final decision to operate was made. Spontaneous recovery occurred more commonly in children over 12 months old. All patients treated by operation had a satisfactory outcome with few complications. The overall rate of recurrence was 4.0% and it was more common in younger children. Our results suggest that a conservative approach to surgery for this condition could be adopted. (+info)