Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998.
From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax. (+info)
Newly recognized focus of La Crosse encephalitis in Tennessee.
La Crosse virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that causes encephalitis in children. Only nine cases were reported in Tennessee during the 33-year period from 1964-1996. We investigated a cluster of La Crosse encephalitis cases in eastern Tennessee in 1997. Medical records of all suspected cases of La Crosse virus infection at a pediatric referral hospital were reviewed, and surveillance was enhanced in the region. Previous unreported cases were identified by surveying 20 hospitals in the surrounding 16 counties. Mosquito eggs were collected from five sites. Ten cases of La Crosse encephalitis were serologically confirmed. None of the patients had been discharged from hospitals in the region with diagnosed La Crosse encephalitis in the preceding 5 years. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were collected at the case sites; none of the mosquitos had detectable La Crosse virus. This cluster may represent an extension of a recently identified endemic focus of La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia. (+info)
Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines and persistence of disease in disadvantaged populations. The Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines among children aged 2 to 18 months and to determine risk factors for invasive Hib disease during a period of declining incidence (1991-1994). METHODS: A prospective population-based case-control study was conducted in a multistate US population of 15.5 million. A laboratory-based active surveillance system was used for case detection. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, having a single-parent mother (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 14.8) and household crowding (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.03, 11.7) were risk factors for Hib disease independent of vaccination status. After adjustment for these risk factors, the protective efficacy of 2 or more Hib vaccine doses was 86% (95% CI = 16%, 98%). Among undervaccinated subjects, living with a smoker (P = .02) and several indicators of lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for Hib disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hib disease still occurs at low levels in the United States, predominantly in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Low immunization coverage may facilitate continuing transmission of Hib. Special efforts to achieve complete and timely immunization in disadvantaged populations are needed. (+info)
Gender and ethnic differences in young adolescents' sources of cigarettes.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the sources used by young adolescents to obtain cigarettes. DESIGN: In early 1994 a survey assessing usual sources of cigarettes and characteristics of the respondents was administered in homeroom classes. SETTING: A large urban, predominantly African American school system. SUBJECTS: A population-based sample of 6967 seventh graders averaging 13 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Reports of usual sources of cigarettes. RESULTS: At this age level, young smokers were more likely to get cigarettes from friends (31.2%) than buy them in stores (14.3%). However, the odds of purchasing varied for different groups of children. Regular smokers were much more likely (48.3%) to have purchased cigarettes than experimental smokers (9.6%), p < 0.001. Girls were less likely to have bought their cigarettes than boys (p < 0.001), and black smokers were less likely to have purchased cigarettes than white children (p < 0.001). Results suggested that family members who smoke may constitute a more important source of tobacco products than previously recognised, particularly for young girls. CONCLUSIONS: In this middle-school sample, peers provided the major point of cigarette distribution. However, even at this age, direct purchase was not uncommon. Sources of cigarettes varied significantly with gender, ethnicity, and smoking rate. (+info)
Exploring self-care and wellness: a model for pharmacist compensation by managed care organizations.
Self-care and wellness are rapidly becoming mainstays of practice for many pharmacists. Consumer confidence and trust in pharmacists provides continuing opportunities for pharmacists to create products and services to satisfy consumer demands related to disease prevention and healthcare delivery. We outline two pharmacy wellness programs designed to meet consumer needs, and offer them as models for pharmacists. Issues related to the program and extent of involvement by pharmacists are raised, including the role of the pharmacists in behavior modification efforts; selecting areas of focus (e.g., smoking cessation); working with physicians for referrals; enlightening community business leaders and managed care organizations to the economic benefits of the program; and developing strategies for fair purchase of services to achieve program goals and provide adequate compensation in return. (+info)
Development and evaluation of a pharmacist-directed pharmacotherapy center.
This article is designed for ambulatory pharmacy specialists, pharmacy administrators, and managed care pharmacy and/or medical directors interested in developing systems for improved drug therapy outcomes. GOAL: To describe an alternative method for the effective delivery of pharmaceutical care. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the barriers to delivery of pharmaceutical care in current systems. 2. Describe the steps to take to implement a referral-based pharmaceutical care service. 3. Describe the financial and patient satisfaction outcomes of a referral-based pharmacy. 4. Describe the services that can be offered by a referral-based pharmacy. (+info)
Predictors of cesarean section delivery among college-educated black and white women, Davidson County, Tennessee, 1990-1994.
Cesarean section delivery increases the cost, morbidity, and mortality of childbirth. Cesarean section rates vary nationwide with the highest rates occurring in the southern United States. The Department of Health and Human Services has published year 2000 objectives that include a 15% reduction in the cesarean section rate. This study identified factors contributing to cesarean section delivery among a cohort of college-educated black and white women in Davidson County, TN. Logistic regression models were applied to Linked Infant Birth and Death certificate data from 1990-1994. Data on singleton first births for 606 black women and 3661 white women completing 16 years of education were analyzed. College-educated African Americans were at a significantly higher risk of cesarean section delivery than whites. This difference could not be accounted for by controlling for all other variables. The geographic differences in cesarean section rates in this country may be the result of varying in provider practice styles, perceptions, or attitudes. Improving the health of women and children will require establishing a system of maternity care that is comprehensive, case-managed, culturally appropriate, and available to all women. (+info)
The impact of after-school peer contact on early adolescent externalizing problems is moderated by parental monitoring, perceived neighborhood safety, and prior adjustment.
Unsupervised peer contact in the after-school hours was examined as a risk factor in the development of externalizing problems in a longitudinal sample of early adolescents. Parental monitoring, neighborhood safety, and adolescents' preexisting behavioral problems were considered as possible moderators of the risk relation. Interviews with mothers provided information on monitoring, neighborhood safety, and demographics. Early adolescent (ages 12-13 years) after-school time use was assessed via a telephone interview in grade 6 (N = 438); amount of time spent with peers when no adult was present was tabulated. Teacher ratings of externalizing behavior problems were collected in grades 6 and 7. Unsupervised peer contact, lack of neighborhood safety, and low monitoring incrementally predicted grade 7 externalizing problems, after controlling for family background factors and grade 6 problems. The greatest risk was for those unsupervised adolescents living in low-monitoring homes and comparatively unsafe neighborhoods. The significant relation between unsupervised peer contact and problem behavior in grade 7 held only for those adolescents who already were high in problem behavior in grade 6. These findings point to the need to consider individual, family, and neighborhood factors in evaluating risks associated with young adolescents' after-school care experiences. (+info)