Specific and innervation-regulated expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle. (1/2015)

The intermediate filament proteins nestin, vimentin, and desmin show a specific temporal expression pattern during the development of myofibers from myogenic precursor cells. Nestin and vimentin are actively expressed during early developmental stages to be later down-regulated, vimentin completely and nestin to minimal levels, whereas desmin expression begins later and is maintained in mature myofibers, in which desmin participates in maintaining structural integrity. In this study we have analyzed the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin in intact and denervated muscle in rat and in human. Nestin immunoreactivity was specifically and focally localized in the sarcoplasm underneath neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and in the vicinity of the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), ie, in regions associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This association prompted us to analyze nestin in neurogenically and myogenically denervated muscle. Immunoblot analysis disclosed a marked overall increase of accumulated nestin protein. Similar to the extrajunctional redistribution of AChRs in denervated myofibers, nestin immunoreactivity extended widely beyond the NMJ region. Re-innervation caused complete reversion of these changes. Our study demonstrates that the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin are regulated by innervation, ie, signal transduction into myofibers.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (2/2015)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

Extensive post-traumatic ossification of the patellar tendon. A report of two cases. (3/2015)

Two men, aged 21 and 50 years, were seen with ossification of the patellar tendon after injury to the knee in adolescence. They complained of pain and had patella alta. Large bony masses were excised from below the affected patellae. The patellar tendon was then reconstructed using a Leeds-Keio ligament. The results at six and ten years, respectively, were good, with neither patient having pain or an extension lag.  (+info)

Fibromodulin-null mice have abnormal collagen fibrils, tissue organization, and altered lumican deposition in tendon. (4/2015)

Fibromodulin is a member of a family of connective tissue glycoproteins/proteoglycans containing leucine-rich repeat motifs. Several members of this gene family bind to fibrillar collagens and are believed to function in the assembly of the collagen network in connective tissues. Here we show that mice lacking a functional fibromodulin gene exhibit an altered morphological phenotype in tail tendon with fewer and abnormal collagen fiber bundles. In fibromodulin-null animals virtually all collagen fiber bundles are disorganized and have an abnormal morphology. Also 10-20% of the bundles in heterozygous mice are similar to the abnormal bundles in fibromodulin-null tail tendon. Ultrastructural analysis of Achilles tendon from fibromodulin-null mice show collagen fibrils with irregular and rough outlines in cross-section. Morphometric analysis show that fibromodulin-null mice have on the average thinner fibrils than wild type animals as a result of a larger preponderance of very thin fibrils in an overall similar range of fibril diameters. Protein and RNA analyses show an approximately 4-fold increase in the content of lumican in fibromodulin-null as compared with wild type tail tendon, despite a decrease in lumican mRNA. These results demonstrate a role for fibromodulin in collagen fibrillogenesis and suggest that the orchestrated action of several leucine-rich repeat glycoproteins/proteoglycans influence the architecture of collagen matrices.  (+info)

Predicting the outcome of adductor tenotomy. (5/2015)

This study reviewed 57 hips in 30 children (18 girls and 12 boys) with cerebral palsy who had undergone an adductor tenotomy alone or in combination with an anterior obturator neurectomy (23 hips). Results were evaluated by the Reimers migration percentage (MP). The hips were split into three groups: group A (12 hips) a preoperative MP of less than 20%, group B (25 hips) between 20 and 40%, and group C (20 hips) more than 40%. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6 years and 1 month (range: 2.5-13 years). The mean period of review was 6 years and 3 months (2-20 years). The results were considered as "good" when radiographs at the longest follow-up showed a decrease of > 10% of the MP, as "bad" when they showed an increase of > 10%, and as "stable" when the MPs varied less than 10%. At the latest review of group A, 11 were stable (92%) and 1 was bad. In group B, 12 were stable (48%), 7 were good (28%), and 6 were bad (24%). In group C, 7 were stable (35%), and 13 were bad (65%). The preoperative migration percentage provided to be the only predictor of outcome. Age at the time of surgery had no constant significant effect on the outcome, neither had the addition of an anterior neurectomy.  (+info)

Insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in feet with and without hallux valgus. (6/2015)

Textbooks of human anatomy present different opinions on the insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle which is concerned in etiology as well as in therapy of hallux valgus. In plastic and reconstructive surgery the muscle is taken as a graft for flap-surgery. In this study 109 feet (58 right, 51 left) were examined, 18 of these with clinical hallux valgus. The tendon of the muscle may attach to the tendon of the medial head of the short flexor hallucis muscle where a subtendineous bursa can be found. At the head of the first metatarsal bone the joint capsule is reinforced by fibres arising from the medial sesamoid bone which may be called "medial sesamoidal ligament." The tendon passes the first metatarsophalangeal joint plantarily to its transverse axis. Three types of insertion could be distinguished: type A, insertion at the proximal phalanx (N = 42); type B, insertion at the medial sesamoid ligament and at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 65); type C, insertion at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 2). In all types superficial fibres of the tendon extended to the medial and plantar sides of the base of the proximal phalanx, running in a plantar to dorsal direction. Statistical analysis exposed neither significant differences between both sides nor significant difference between normal feet and feet with hallux valgus. Therefore, a specific pattern of insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus cannot be stated.  (+info)

Effect of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid on glycosylations of collagen in chick-embryo tendon cells. (7/2015)

The glycosylations of hydroxylysine during collagen biosynthesis in isolated chick-embryo tendon cells were studied by using pulse-chase labelling experiments with [14C]-lysine. The hydroxylation of lysine and the glycosylations of hydroxylysine continued after a 5 min pulse label for up to about 10 min during the chase period. These data differ from those obtained previously in isolated chick-embryo cartilage cells, in which, after a similar 5 min pulse label, these reactions continued during the chase period for up to about 20 min. The collagen synthesized by the isolated chick-embryo tendon cells differed markedly from the type I collagen of adult tissues in its degree of hydroxylation of lysine residues and glycosylations of hydroxylysine residues. When the isolated tendon cells were incubated in the presence of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, the degree of glycosylations of hydroxylysine during the first 10 min of the chase period was identical with that in cells incubated without thcarboxylic acid for at least 60 min, whereas no additional glycosylations took place in the control cells after the 10 min time-point. As a consequence, the collagen synthesized in the presence of this compound contained more carbohydrate than did the collagen synthesized by the control cells. Additional experiments indicated that azetidine-2-carboxylic acid did not increase the collagen glycosyltransferase activities in the tendon cells or the rate of glycosylation reactions when added directly to the enzyme incubation mixture. Control experiments with colchicine indicated that the delay in the rate of collagen secretion, which was observed in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, did not in itself affect the degree of glycosylations of collagen. The results thus suggest that the increased glycosylations were due to inhibition of the collagen triple-helix formation, which is known to occur in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.  (+info)

Plantar aponeurosis and internal architecture of the ball of the foot. (8/2015)

On the basis of its internal structure, the ball of the foot can be divided into three transverse areas, each with a different mechanical function: (1) an area proximal to the heads of the metatarsals in which the retinacula cutis are developed into a series of transverse bands, and in which the deep fibres of the plantar aponeurosis form ten sagittal septa connected to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament and through this the proximal phalanges of the toes, (2) an area below the heads of the metatarsals in which vertical fibres from the joint capsules and the sides of the fibrous flexor sheaths form a cushion below each metatarsal head, and in which fat bodies cover the digital nerves and vessels in their passage between the cushions, and (3) a distal area which comprises the interdigital web. The superficial fibres of the plantar aponeurosis are inserted into the skin of this distal area, and deep to them the plantar interdigital ligament forms a series of transverse lamellae connected to the proximal phalanges by a mooring ligament which arches from one fibrous flexor sheath to the next. When the metatarsophalangeal joints are extended, the fibres of the three areas are tensed and the skin is anchored firmly to the skeleton. The direction of the fibres in the distal and proximal area promotes the transfer of forces exerted on the skin during push-off and braking respectively, while the intermediate area is adapted to bear the weight of the body. A concentration of Pacinian corpuscles is found along the digital nerves in the weight-bearing area below the transverse metatarsal ligament. The nerves for the second, and especially for the third, interstice are close to or in contact with the sharp proximal edges of the sagittal septa.  (+info)