Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture. (+info)
Safe relief of rest pain that eases with activity in achillodynia by intrabursal or peritendinous steroid injection: the rupture rate was not increased by these steroid injections.
A history of morning and rest pain that eases with activity was found to improve after anti-inflammatory injections around the paratenon or within the Achilles bursae. The reduction in pain morbidity was significant, and the peritendinous steroid injections did not increase the rupture rate. (+info)
Diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders: interobserver agreement and determinants of disagreement.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the interobserver agreement on the diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders, based on history taking and physical examination, and to identify the determinants of diagnostic disagreement. METHODS: Consecutive eligible patients with shoulder pain were recruited in various health care settings in the Netherlands. After history taking, two physiotherapists independently performed a physical examination and subsequently the shoulder complaints were classified into one of six diagnostic categories: capsular syndrome (for example, capsulitis, arthritis), acute bursitis, acromioclavicular syndrome, subacromial syndrome (for example, tendinitis, chronic bursitis), rest group (for example, unclear clinical picture, extrinsic causes) and mixed clinical picture. To quantify the interobserver agreement Cohen's kappa was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which clinical characteristics were determinants of diagnostic disagreement. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 201 patients with varying severity and duration of complaints. The kappa for the classification of shoulder disorders was 0.45 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.37, 0.54). Diagnostic disagreement was associated with bilateral involvement (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.7), chronic complaints (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.7), and severe pain (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Only moderate agreement was found on the classification of shoulder disorders, which implies that differentiation between the various categories of shoulder disorders is complicated. Especially patients with high pain severity, chronic complaints and bilateral involvement represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. As diagnostic classification is a guide for treatment decisions, unsatisfactory reproducibility might affect treatment outcome. To improve the reproducibility, more insight into the reproducibility of clinical findings and the value of additional diagnostic procedures is needed. (+info)
Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Although ultrasound therapy is used to treat calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, its efficacy has not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of ultrasonography and sham insonation in patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis verified by radiography. Patients were assigned to receive 24 15-minute sessions of either pulsed ultrasound (frequency, 0.89 MHz; intensity, 2.5 W per square centimeter; pulsed mode, 1:4) or an indistinguishable sham treatment to the area over the calcification. The first 15 treatments were given daily (five times per week), and the remainder were given three times a week for three weeks. Randomization was conducted according to shoulders rather than patients, so a patient with bilateral tendinitis might receive either or both therapies. RESULTS: We enrolled 63 consecutive patients (70 shoulders). Fifty-four patients (61 shoulders) completed the study. There were 32 shoulders in the ultrasound-treatment group and 29 in the sham-treatment group. After six weeks of treatment, calcium deposits had resolved in six shoulders (19 percent) in the ultrasound-treatment group and decreased by at least 50 percent in nine shoulders (28 percent), as compared with respective values of zero and three (10 percent) in the sham-treatment group (P=0.003). At the nine-month follow-up visit, calcium deposits had resolved in 13 shoulders (42 percent) in the ultrasound-treatment group and improved in 7 shoulders (23 percent), as compared with respective values of 2 (8 percent) and 3 (12 percent) in the sham-treatment group (P=0.002). At the end of treatment, patients who had received ultrasound treatment had greater decreases in pain and greater improvements in the quality of life than those who had received sham treatment; at nine months, the differences between the groups were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, ultrasound treatment helps resolve calcifications and is associated with short-term clinical improvement. (+info)
Lysylhydroxylation and non-reducible crosslinking of human supraspinatus tendon collagen: changes with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate age related and site specific variations in turnover and chemistry of the collagen network in healthy tendons as well as the role of collagen remodelling in the degeneration of the supraspinatus tendon (ST-D) in rotator cuff tendinitis. METHODS: Collagen content and the amount of hydroxylysine (Hyl), hydroxy-lysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP), and the degree of non-enzymatic glycation (pentosidine) were investigated in ST-D and in normal human supraspinatus (ST-N) and biceps brachii tendons (BT-N) by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: In BT-N, tendons that served as control tissue as it shows rarely matrix abnormalities, pentosidine levels rise linearly with age (20-90 years), indicating little tissue remodelling (resulting in an undisturbed accumulation of pentosidine). A similar accumulation was observed in ST-N up to 50 years. At older ages, little pentosidine accumulation was observed and pentosidine levels showed large interindividual variability. This was interpreted as remodelling of collagen in normal ST after age 50 years because of microruptures (thus diluting old collagen with newly synthesised collagen). All degenerate ST samples showed decreased pentosidine levels compared with age matched controls, indicating extensive remodelling in an attempt to repair the tendon defect. Collagen content and the amount of Hyl, HP, and LP of ST-N and BT-N did not change with age. With the exception of collagen content, which did not differ, all parameters were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in BT-N. The ST-D samples had a reduced collagen content and had higher Hyl, HP, and LP levels than ST-N (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Inasmuch as Hyl, HP, and LP levels in ST-N did not change with age, tissue remodelling as a consequence of microruptures does not seem to affect the quality of the tendon collagen. On the other hand, the clearly different profile of post-translational modifications in ST-D indicates that the newly deposited collagen network in degenerated tendons is qualitatively different. It is concluded that in ST-D the previously functional and carefully constructed matrix is replaced by aberrant collagen. This may result in a mechanically less stable tendon; as the supraspinatus is constantly subjected to considerable forces this could explain why tendinitis is mostly of a chronic nature. (+info)
Comparative efficacy and safety of nimesulide and diclofenac in patients with acute shoulder, and a meta-analysis of controlled studies with nimesulide.
Adverse events, particularly gastrointestinal, partially offset the therapeutic value of NSAIDs. The abilities of nimesulide to inhibit COX-2 preferentially and to exert other novel anti-inflammatory actions are consistent with good efficacy and safety. This is borne out by a double-blind multicentre comparison of nimesulide and diclofenac in 122 patients with acute shoulder, and by a meta-analysis of various nimesulide trials. At the end of the 14 day double-blind study, nimesulide was at least as effective as diclofenac (investigator ratings: good/very good in 79.0% of patients given nimesulide, and 78.0% with diclofenac; patient ratings: good/very good in 82.3 and 78.0% respectively). Four patients (6.5%) dropped out in the nimesulide group (two early recovery, one lack of effect, one adverse event), compared with 13 (21.7%) in the diclofenac group, due mainly to adverse events (P=0.003). Global tolerability was judged by the investigators to be good/very good in 96.8% of the nimesulide group compared with 72.9% of those given diclofenac. Judgements by the patients were 96.8 and 78.0% respectively. Both differences are highly significant statistically. The meta-analysis demonstrates that nimesulide given for 2 weeks is far more efficacious than placebo in treating osteoarthritis, and is at least comparable to other NSAIDs The benefit-risk ratio for nimesulide was better in all individual studies since 100 mg nimesulide twice daily was about equal to placebo in safety and tolerability, especially regarding gastrointestinal adverse events. (+info)
Attitudes toward management of patients with subacromial pain in Swedish primary care.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the attitudes among GPs and physiotherapists toward the diagnostic approach and management of patients with a common shoulder disorder. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent out to 188 GPs and 71 physiotherapists. The total response rate was 71.8%. The questions were based on a written case simulation with cues about history and symptoms. RESULTS: The results showed a unanimous opinion of the diagnosis. Rotator cuff tendinitis was marked as the most probable. The two groups showed similarities in the way that they would examine the patient. The GPs referred the patients to the physiotherapists significantly more often than the other way around. The most probable choice of treatment made by the GPs was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and by the physiotherapists, movement exercises together with ergonomics. Most treatment alternatives had at least 20% of the responders marking a neutral attitude, and few treatments were disregarded. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Swedish primary care GPs and physiotherapists have a uniform diagnostic approach towards patients with subacromial pain, but their choice of treatment reflects an uncertainty about the effectiveness of conservative treatments. The questioned pathogenesis of the suggested diagnosis and lack of research regarding the efficacy of conservative treatments could explain this uncertainty. (+info)
Achilles tendinitis associated with fluoroquinolones.
AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between use of fluoroquinolones and tendinitis in a large population under everyday circumstances. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a dynamic population. Data came from the IPCI-database which consists of all data on consultations, morbidity, prescriptions and other interventions, as registered by GPs in a source population of approximately 250 000 persons. For this study data were collected from 41 general practices in the period from January 1st, 1995 through December 31st, 1996. All persons treated with either fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin were followed from the first day of treatment until the outcome of interest, death, transfer to another practice, or end of the study period, whichever came first. The risk window was defined as the legend duration +1 month. Potential cases were defined as a registration of a tendinitis or tendon rupture. Patients with a history of tendinitis or tendon rupture, preceding trauma or inadequate diagnoses were excluded on the basis of a review of the patient profiles and additional clinical data, blinded as to the exposure status. Results were adjusted for age, gender, concurrent corticosteroid exposure and number of GP visits. RESULTS: There were 1841 users of fluoroquinolones and 9406 users of the other antibacterial drugs with an average duration of 9 and 7 days, respectively. Tendinitis or tendon rupture was registered in 97 profiles, but after review only 22 complied with the case definition. The adjusted relative risk of tendinitis to fluoroquinolones was 3. 7 (95%CI: 0.9-15.1) for Achilles tendinitis and 1.3 (95%CI: 0.4-4.7) for other types of tendinitis. Achilles tendinitis to ofloxacin had a relative risk of 10.1 (95%CI: 2.2-46.0) and an excess risk of 15 cases per 100 000 exposure days. CONCLUSIONS: Although the numbers in our study are small, our results suggest that some fluoroquinolones may increase the risk of Achilles tendinitis, and that this risk increase is highest for ofloxacin. (+info)