How can videolaparoscopy be used in a peritoneal dialysis programme?
BACKGROUND: Recently videolaparoscopy is considered to have a vaster use in surgery due to the undeniable benefits such as low operatory traumatism, quick recovery of canalization, a short stay in the hospital and minor scarring. METHODS: Forty patients were treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD); 15 videolaparoscopic procedures were performed on 13 patients before starting PD and two during the course of PD. The videolaparoscopy procedure was started by inducing pneumoperitoneum after initiation of general anaesthesia through endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Peritoneal catheter placement was carried out in 11 ESRD patients showing abdominal scars due to previous laparotomies; their abdominal condition precluded safe PC placement using conventional non-laparoscopic procedures with local anaesthesia. Release of adhesions was performed only in two patients. Videolaparoscopy was also used in three patients for elective cholecystectomy; 2/3 underwent concomitant PC insertion. One patient was submitted to cholecystectomy during the course of CAPD; following the procedure we left the peritoneum dry overnight and then we started temporary IPD, using small volumes, avoiding haemodialysis (HD). Regular CAPD was resumed 6 days later. Finally, videolaparoscopy was also used for diagnostic purpose i.e. in one 59-year-old man patient who had a peritoneal catheter obstruction. Repeated rescue attempts using urokinase solution to irrigate the peritoneal catheter had been used in vain attempts prior to the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Videolaparoscopy proves to be a useful tool in a PD programme. Firstly, it may be used as a technique for catheter implantation, not as a routine procedure but in patients with extensive abdominal scars due to previous laparotomy, i.e. at risk for accidental viscera perforation due to the possibility of adhesions between intestinal loops and parietal peritoneum. Secondly, videolaparoscopy used for abdominal surgery allows the resumption of PD immediately after surgical procedure and thus avoiding HD. Videolaparoscopy is fundamental for diagnosis and rescue of catheter dysfunction and has an integral role in the successful management of these patients in extending catheter function and permitting safe replacement of peritoneal catheter if it becomes necessary. Along with the undeniable advantages, remains the disadvantages that it must be carried out by an expert surgeon in an operating theatre while the patient is under general anaesthesia. (+info)
The reach and effectiveness of a national mass media-led smoking cessation campaign in The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reach, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of a mass media-led smoking cessation campaign including television shows, a television clinic, a quit line, local group programs, and a comprehensive publicity campaign. METHODS: A random sample of baseline smokers (n = 1338) was interviewed before and after the campaign and at a 10-month follow-up. A nonpretested control group (n = 508) of baseline smokers was incorporated to control for test effects. RESULTS: Most smokers were aware of the campaign, although active participation rates were low. Dose-response relations between exposure and quitting were found. The follow-up point prevalence abstinence rate attributable to the campaign was estimated to be 4.5% after control for test effects and secular trends. The cost per long-term quitter was about $12. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of a massive rise in tobacco promotion expenditures prior to the campaign and the absence of governmental control over the media, the campaign under study may have increased normal cessation rates substantially. (+info)
Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self poisoning: time series and questionnaire study.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a serious paracetamol overdose in the medical television drama Casualty altered the incidence and nature of general hospital presentations for deliberate self poisoning. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis of presentations for self poisoning at accident and emergency departments during three week periods before and after the broadcast. Questionnaire responses collected from self poisoning patients during the same periods. SETTING: 49 accident and emergency departments and psychiatric services in United Kingdom collected incidence data; 25 services collected questionnaire data. SUBJECTS: 4403 self poisoning patients; questionnaires completed for 1047. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in presentation rates for self poisoning in the three weeks after the broadcast compared with the three weeks before, use of paracetamol and other drugs for self poisoning, and the nature of overdoses in viewers of the broadcast compared with non-viewers. RESULTS: Presentations for self poisoning increased by 17% (95% confidence interval 7% to 28%) in the week after the broadcast and by 9% (0 to 19%) in the second week. Increases in paracetamol overdoses were more marked than increases in non-paracetamol overdoses. Thirty two patients who presented in the week after the broadcast and were interviewed had seen the episode-20% said that it had influenced their decision to take an overdose, and 17% said it had influenced their choice of drug. The use of paracetamol for overdose doubled among viewers of Casualty after the episode (rise of 106%; 28% to 232%). CONCLUSIONS: Broadcast of popular television dramas depicting self poisoning may have a short term influence in terms of increases in hospital presentation for overdose and changes in the choice of drug taken. This raises serious questions about the advisability of the media portraying suicidal behaviour. (+info)
Health education in television entertainment--Medisch Centrum West: a Dutch drama serial.
World-wide a number of groups have sought ways to incorporate health messages into television entertainment like popular drama and soap serials. In the Netherlands, the Heart Foundation incorporated its cardiovascular health message in several episodes of a popular Dutch hospital serial called Medisch Centrum West. To obtain greater insight into the impact of this so-called 'entertainment-education (E & E) strategy', an evaluation study was carried out. Medisch Centrum West was both entertaining and informative at the same time. Although viewers were well aware that the programme included a health message, they did not find it intrusive to their enjoyment of the storyline. It was interesting to learn that fans were more tolerant and positive towards the E & E strategy than non-fans. Age, sex and education level explained only 5% of the variance. (+info)
Effect of closed circuit television on urban violence.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of city and town centre closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance on violence in terms of accident and emergency (A&E) department and police assault data. METHODS: A&E department and local police assault data in three centres in Wales (Cardiff, Swansea, and Rhyl) two years before and two years after the installation of CCTV were studied. British Crime Survey and police crime statistics were used as control data. RESULTS: A&E records of 24,442 assault patients and 3228 violent offences recorded by the police were studied. Data from two A&E departments (Swansea (+3%) and Rhyl (+45%)) showed increases in recorded assaults after CCTV installation but a decrease (12%) in the largest centre, Cardiff. There was an overall reduction in town/city centre violence from the A&E department perspective of 1% in the two years after CCTV installation. In contrast, police data demonstrated changes in the opposite direction (-44%, -24%, and +20% respectively) contributing to an overall decrease of 9%. British Crime Survey and police statistics for England and Wales demonstrated no overall change and a 16% increase respectively. CONCLUSIONS: City centre CCTV installation had no obvious influence on levels of assaults recorded in A&E departments. There was a negative relationship between police and A&E recording in all three centres. A&E departments are important and unique sources of information about community violence. (+info)
Ultrasonic videodensitometric analysis of myocardium in end-stage renal disease treated with haemodialysis.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate videodensitometric parameters of the myocardium, in dialysis patients, who represent a complex pathophysiological model of pressure volume overload, and in essential hypertensive patients with the same level of left ventricular mass. METHODS: We compared a group of male dialysis patients (D) with two groups: hypertensive patients (H) with comparable left ventricular mass and normotensive healthy subjects as controls (C). The groups (n=15 each) were age- (53 +/- 9 years) and gender-matched. Quantitative analysis of echocardiographic digitalized imaging was performed to calculate the mean grey level (MGL) and cyclic variation index (CVI). RESULTS: The haemodialysis patients had a significantly lower CVI compared with hypertensives and controls both for septum (D): -2.5 +/- 17.4% vs (H); 11.8 +/- 17% vs (C); 43.2 +/- 15.4% (P<0.001) and for posterior wall (D): -10.1 +/- 261% vs (H); 14.2 +/- 14.7% vs (C); 46.6 +/- 17.2% (P<0.001). A significant inverse relationship was found between intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and CVI. CONCLUSION: Abnormalities of two-dimensional echocardiographic grey level distribution are present in both haemodialysis patients and hypertensive patients, but seem unrelated to the degree of echocardiographic hypertrophy. These videodensitometric myocardial alterations are significantly higher in dialysis patients than in hypertensive patients with the same extent of left ventricular hypertrophy. The iPTH level may play a role in the development of the ultrasonic myocardial alterations, which probably represent an early stage of uraemic cardiomyopathy. (+info)
Regional ischemia in hypertrophic Langendorff-perfused rat hearts.
Myocardial hypertrophy decreases the muscle mass-to-vascularization ratio, thereby changing myocardial perfusion. The effect of these changes on myocardial oxygenation in hypertrophic Langendorff-perfused rat hearts was measured using epimyocardial NADH videofluorimetry, whereby ischemic myocardium displays a high fluorescence intensity. Hypertrophic hearts, in contrast to control hearts, developed ischemic areas during oxygen-saturated Langendorff perfusion. Reoxygenation of control hearts after a hypoxic episode resulted in a swift decrease of fluorescence in a heterogeneous pattern of small, evenly dispersed, highly fluorescent patches. Identical patterns could be evoked by occluding capillaries with microspheres 5.9 micrometer in diameter. Ten seconds after reoxygenation there were no more dysoxic areas, whereas reoxygenation in hypertrophic hearts showed larger ischemic areas that took significantly longer to return to normoxic fluorescence intensities. Hypothesizing that the larger areas originate at a vascular level proximal to the capillary network, we induced hypoxic patterns by embolizing control hearts with microspheres 9.8 and 15 micrometer in diameter. The frequency distribution histograms of these dysoxic surface areas matched those of hypertrophic hearts and differed significantly from those of hearts embolized with 5.9-micrometer microspheres. These results suggest the existence of areas in hypertrophic Langendorff-perfused hearts with suboptimal vascularization originating at the arteriolar and/or arterial level. (+info)
The impact of television on attitudes towards organ donation--a survey in a German urban population sample.
BACKGROUND: The stagnation or decrease in organ donation rates since 1992 in Germany has partly been attributed to the negative impact of reports about organ donation periodically presented by German television between 1992 and 1997. This study was performed to elucidate the impact of the media on the public's attitudes towards organ donation. METHODS: A questionnaire concerning different aspects of organ donation was sent to the parents of pupils of a high school in a German city in 1994 and 1998. RESULTS: In 1994, 940 adults could be identified who had (TV+, n = 546) or had not (TV-, n = 394) followed at least one television discussion about the topic. In 1998, the group consisted of 756 (TV+, n = 443 and TV-, n = 313) adults. The discriminating question was of sufficient strength to reveal significant differences between TV(+) and TV(-) respondents. Contrary to an assumed negative impact of TV, differences between the groups were detectable mainly in questions regarding information, but not in those which dealt with personal fears and concerns. The main results obtained in both surveys were identical. Furthermore, from 1994 to 1998 there was a trend in favour of information and organ donation for TV(+) but not for TV(-) respondents. CONCLUSION: The assumption that TV has had a negative impact on donation rates must be rejected. Therefore, the stagnation/decline in donation rates must be attributed to other factors. (+info)