Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD): a comprehensive review.
Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) represents a well-recognized clinical problem with a reported incidence among individuals with a diagnosis of intractable epilepsy as high as 36%. A failure to identify this disorder may lead to certain risks for the patient including polypharmacy, anticonvulsant toxicity, hazardous intervention, social and economic demands and a lack of recognition or neglect of any underlying psychological distress. This review provides a description of NEAD in an historic and societal context and discusses the variety of terminology which has been applied to this psychophysiological phenomenon. Epidemiology and associated methodological limitations; and diagnostic and classification issues related to NEAD in comparison to epilepsy are considered. The problems of failure to recognize NEAD in comparison to epilepsy are considered. The problems of failure to recognize NEAD are outlined, and theoretical and empirical aetiological issues are discussed. (+info)
Contribution of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors to ventricular hypertrophy produced by sino-aortic denervation in rats.
1. To test whether sino-aortic denervation (SAD)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a consequence of baroreceptor or chemoreceptor denervation, we compared the effects of aortic denervation (AD), carotid denervation (CD), SAD and a SAD procedure modified to spare the carotid chemoreceptors (mSAD), 6 weeks after denervation surgery in rats. A sham surgery group served as the control. 2. The blood pressure (BP) level was unaffected by AD, CD or SAD, but increased (9 %) following mSAD. The mean heart rate level was not affected. Short-term BP variability was elevated following AD (81 %), SAD (144 %) and mSAD (146 %), but not after CD. Baroreflex heart rate responses to phenylephrine were attenuated in all denervation groups. 3. Significant RVH occurred only following CD and SAD. These procedures also produced high mortality (CD and SAD) and significant increases in right ventricular pressures and haematocrit (CD). 4. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy occurred following CD, SAD and mSAD. Normalized left ventricular weight was significantly correlated with indices of BP variability. 5. These results suggest that SAD-induced RVH is a consequence of chemoreceptor, not baroreceptor, denervation. Our results also demonstrate that a mSAD procedure designed to spare the carotid chemoreceptors produced profound baroreflex dysfunction and significant left, but not right, ventricular hypertrophy. (+info)
Class differences in the effects of calcium channel blockers in the rat remnant kidney model.
BACKGROUND: Controversy persists as to the existence of class differences between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in their ability to provide renoprotection and as to potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Rats with 5/6 renal ablation were left untreated or received diltiazem, verapamil, or felodipine after the first week, and the relationship between continuous radiotelemetrically measured blood pressure (BP) and glomerulosclerosis (GS) was assessed at seven weeks. Additionally, the effects of these CCBs on renal autoregulation and hypertrophy were examined at three weeks after renal ablation. RESULTS: Although an excellent linear correlation was observed between the average BP levels and GS in all groups (r = 0.75 to 0.84, P < 0.01), significant protection was not achieved with any of the CCBs, but for different reasons. The antihypertensive effects of diltiazem were not sustained beyond the second week. Verapamil significantly reduced the average BP (144 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 181 +/- 8 in untreated rats) but shifted the slope of the relationship between BP and GS (increase in percentage GS/mm Hg increase in average systolic BP) to the left (x intercept 121 vs. 144 mm Hg for untreated rats, P < 0.01) so that GS was not reduced. Felodipine also significantly reduced the average BP (144 +/- 3 mm Hg) and shifted the slope to the left (x intercept 123 mm Hg), but additionally made the slope steeper (2.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.2 in untreated rats). Because of these differing effects on the relationship between BP and GS, the rank order of GS for any given BP elevation was as follows: felodipine > verapamil > diltiazem = untreated. Felodipine, but not verapamil or diltiazem, caused additional impairment of the already impaired renal autoregulation in untreated rats, thereby explaining its adverse effects on GS. By contrast, the adverse effects of verapamil on GS were attributable to the greater amplitude of BP fluctuations that was observed in the verapamil-treated rats such that for any given average BP, these rats were exposed to greater peak pressures as compared with the other groups. None of the CCBs had a significant effect on glomerular hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: These class differences between CCBs in their relative impact on systemic BP profiles, renal autoregulation, and glomerular pressure transmission may have clinically significant implications and may account for the variable glomeruloprotection that has been observed with these agents in both experimental models and in humans. (+info)
An ambulant porcine model of acid reflux used to evaluate endoscopic gastroplasty.
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of suitable models for testing of therapeutic procedures for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic sewing methods might allow the development of a new less invasive surgical approach to treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. AIMS: To develop an animal model of gastro-oesophageal reflux for testing the efficacy of a new antireflux procedure, endoscopic gastroplasty, performed at flexible endoscopy without laparotomy or laparoscopy. METHODS: At endoscopy a pH sensitive radiotelemetry capsule was sewn to the oesophageal wall, 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter, in six large white pigs. Ambulant pH recordings (48-96 hours; total 447 hours) were obtained. The median distal oesophageal pH was 6.8 (range 6.4-7.3); pH was less than 4 for 9.3% of the time. After one week, endoscopic gastroplasty was performed by placing sutures below the gastro-oesophageal junction, forming a neo-oesophagus of 1-2 cm in length. Postoperative manometry and pH recordings (24-96 hours; total 344 hours) were carried out. RESULTS: Following gastroplasty, the median sphincter pressure increased significantly from 3 to 6 mm Hg and in length from 3 to 3.75 cm. The median time pH was less than 4 decreased significantly from 9.3% to 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first long term measurements of oesophageal pH in ambulant pigs. The finding of spontaneous reflux suggested a model for studying treatments of reflux. Endoscopic gastroplasty increased sphincter pressure and length and decreased acid reflux. (+info)
Diurnal variations of blood pressure in dogs.
Using the telemetry system, we measured the blood pressure (BP) invasively in seven adult mongrels while unanesthetized and unbound. Post-operative BP after implanting the telemetry BP transmitter showed temporarily high values due to the invasive nature of the surgery. It was, however, observed that BP gradually decreased thereafter, and showed settled trends from the eighth day post-operatively. When we took the average of the systolic, mean and diastolic BP at hourly intervals for each of the dogs once their BP had settled, a twin peak diurnal variation (at 8:00 and 19:00) was observed. Moreover, significantly high values (p < 0.05) were identified in active state compared with when sleeping or at rest. The 24 hr BP measured by the telemetry system in seven normal dogs resulted in the following values: systolic 123.4 +/- 7.9 mmHg, mean 91.1 +/- 5.6 mmHg, and diastolic 74.5 +/- 4.9 mmHg. (+info)
A comparison of a new transtelephonic portable spirometer with a laboratory spirometer.
The Spirophone is a new, portable transtelephonic spirometer which records the slow and the forced expiratory vital capacity tests. Data can be transmitted via the telephone to a remote receiving centre, where a volume-time curve and the flow-volume curve are displayed on screen in real time. The aim of this study was to compare the newly developed transtelephonic spirometer, with a laboratory spirometer according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) testing guidelines. Spirometry indices (slow vital capacity (SVC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 25, 50 and 75% of FVC (FEF25, FEF50, and FEF75, respectively)) were measured from the SVC and the FVC tests in 45 subjects (30 patients, 15 healthy volunteers) according to the ATS standards. The data obtained with the laboratory system were compared to those from the Spirophone. The Spirophone measurements of SVC, FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 correlated closely (r=0.91-0.98) to those from the laboratory system, whereas FEF25, FEF50, and FEF75 were significantly higher with the Spirophone. It is concluded that the Spirophone is comparable to the standard spirometry for home monitoring of slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. The validity of the manoeuvre can be assessed on screen in real time. (+info)
Radiotelemetric characterization of overweight-associated rises in blood pressure and heart rate.
We addressed the hypothesis that hypercaloric diets induce hyperkinetic hypertension irrespective of day-night cycle and locomotor activity that is associated with altered cardiac myosin isozymes. Normotensive rats with implanted radiotelemetry pressure transducers were fed increasing amounts of coconut fat (8, 16, and 24%, each for 2 wk) corresponding to 20-47% of total calories from fat. Thereafter, increasing amounts of sucrose (16, 32, and 50%) and fructose (50%) were added to the 24% fat diet corresponding to 13-40% of total calories from sugar. In contrast to the fat diets, the 32% and 50% sucrose diets as well as the 50% fructose diets increased (P < 0.05) blood pressure (systolic maximum +13 mmHg, diastolic maximum +4 mmHg, mean maximum +7 mmHg) and heart rate (maximum +50 beats/min) irrespective of the day-night cycle and the unaltered locomotor activity. Furthermore, body weight increased (P < 0.05) during the 32% and 50% sucrose feedings. The increased blood pressure and heart rate normalized after rats were fed a regular chow. We concluded that an excessive caloric intake results in hyperkinetic hypertension that increases the myosin V(1) proportion. (+info)
Loads on internal spinal fixators measured in different body positions.
Telemeterized internal spinal fixation devices were implanted in ten patients. The loads acting on the fixators were compared for different body positions, including standing, sitting, and lying in a supine, prone, and lateral position. Implant loads differed considerably from patient to patient depending, for example, on the indication for surgery and the surgical procedure. They were altered by anterior interbody fusion. Mostly, only small differences in implant loads were found for the various lying positions. Flexion bending moments were significantly higher in upright than in lying body positions. Loads on the fixators were not higher for sitting than for standing. Patients who have undergone mono- or bisegmental spine stabilization should therefore be allowed to sit as soon as they can leave the bed. (+info)