Firing shrinkage of porcelain-resin composites prepared by laser lithography. (1/64)

Using porcelain and resin-mixed composites as experimental materials, cubic polymerized composites were prepared by the accumulation of thin slices cured by laser scanning. The composites were then fired, and bulk ceramic bodies were made. The optimal firing conditions of polymerized composites and firing shrinkage were investigated. The results showed that cubic ceramic bodies in a form homologous to that before firing could be reproduced. The volume shrinkage of fired ceramic bodies consisting of 1 g of ceramic powders and 0.3 g of epoxy resin was about 30% under all firing conditions, and there were no significant differences between specimens. It was suggested that with further research and development, three-dimensional forms for clinical use in dentistry could be manufactured by the proposed method.  (+info)

21st-century endodontics. (2/64)

BACKGROUND: Endodontics as a discipline has offered patients the opportunity to maintain their natural teeth. As the population expands and ages, the demand for endodontic therapy can be expected to increase as patients seek dental options to keep their teeth for a lifetime. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: New materials, techniques and instruments are entering the market-place to assist dentists in providing patients with more predictable and reliable endodontic treatment. In addition, these new systems make the delivery of endodontic services more efficient. This article describes these advances in endodontic treatment for dentists interested in incorporating these advances into their clinical practice.  (+info)

A new pattern mouth stick. (3/64)

The motivation for the severely handicapped tetraplegic patient in using the mouth stick is quite considerable as through this simple oral aid they are able to carry out small jobs and be involved in social activities. We feel that this modified pattern mouth stick fulfils the aims which we require of it.  (+info)

Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes. (4/64)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of cure (DC) of a light-cured, and a two- and a one-phase (no-mix) chemically-cured, as well as a dual-cured commercially available orthodontic adhesive resin. Forty stainless steel brackets were divided into four groups of 10 brackets each, and the bracket bases were covered with a standardized volume of adhesive. They were then pressed firmly onto a yellowish background surface of 75 per cent reflectance covered with cellulose film to facilitate detachment of the system and recovery of the set material. The visible light- and dual-cured adhesives were photopolymerized by irradiation from the incisal and cervical edges of the bracket for 10 seconds each, while another group of ceramic brackets was used to assess the differential interference of transparent relative to opaque material in the DC. Micro-multiple internal reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the estimation of the DC of the adhesives (alpha = 0.05, n = 10), utilizing a method proposed previously. The dual-cured product demonstrated the highest DC followed by the light-cured combined with the ceramic bracket, and the no-mix and the chemically-cured adhesives. The combination of the metallic bracket with the light-cured product resulted in a DC comparable with that of the chemically-cured material.  (+info)

In vitro comparison of peak polymerization temperatures of 5 provisional restoration resins. (5/64)

BACKGROUND: The heat produced by provisional restoration materials may injure the dental pulp. This study measured and compared peak temperatures during polymerization of 5 materials used in the fabrication of provisional restorations. METHODS: The tested materials were 2 self-curing resins (Integrity and Protemp) and 3 dual-cure resins (Iso-Temp, TCB Dual Cure and Provipont DC). A mould the size of a maxillary molar tooth was fabricated to contain 0.5 cc of resin. The temperature rise of the different materials was recorded every 10 seconds over a 10-minute period. RESULTS: The rise in temperature of Integrity (peak temperature of 33.8 degrees C) and Protemp Garant (35.6 degrees C) was significantly higher than the rise in temperature of Iso-Temp (29.5 degrees C), TCB Dual Cure (28.4 degrees C) and Provipont DC (29.5 degrees C). CONCLUSION: Use of the dual-cure resins in provisional restorations may reduce the risk of pulp injury.  (+info)

Study of resin-bonded calcia investment: Part 1. Setting time and compressive strength. (6/64)

This study was carried out to develop a new titanium casting investment consisting of calcia as the refractory material and a cold-curing resin system as the binder. The setting time of the investment was investigated under different N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) contents in methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) contents in calcia without any sintering agent. The effects of the sintering agents, which were calcium fluoride (CaF2) and calcium chloride (CaCl2), on the compressive strength of the investments were investigated at room temperature before and after heating to two different temperatures. The shortest setting time (68 minutes) of the investment was obtained at 0.37 DMPT/BPO (1.5 vol% /1.0 mass%) ratio by mass. The highest strength (16.5 MPa) was obtained from the investment which contained 2 mass% CaF2 and was heated to 1,100 degrees C. It was found that the developed calcia investment containing 2 mass% CaF2 has a possibility for use in titanium castings.  (+info)

New initiation system for resin polymerization using metal particles and 4-META. (7/64)

Fifteen kinds of metal particles were examined to establish whether they could induce the setting of UDMA-based monomer containing BPO without amine under the presence of 4-META at room temperature. FT-IR spectra of the resultant set samples and the monomer were analyzed to see if the setting was caused by the polymerization. The effects of 4-META and BPO concentrations on the setting time were also studied using the metal particles that induced the setting very effectively. As-received Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Co, and In particles could initiate the polymerization of the monomer in combination with BPO and 4-META when they were moistened with water. All the three kinds of silver alloy particles examined also could initiate the polymerization, although pure silver metal particles could not. The presence of 4-META drastically shortened the setting time of the mixture of Cu particles and the monomer containing BPO, while higher concentration of BPO in the monomer significantly shortened the setting time.  (+info)

Polymerization of UDMA using zinc particles and 4-META with and without BPO. (8/64)

The polymerization phenomena of zinc particles moistened with a small amount of water, 4-META, and UDMA without amine in the presence and absence of BPO were investigated. The effects of 4-META and BPO on the setting time and the degree of conversion (DC) were studied. Moreover, the effect of zinc ion amount on the setting time was investigated. As-received zinc particles could induce the polymerization either with or without BPO. A higher concentration of 4-META shortened the setting time and increased DC when BPO was absent. However, the presence of BPO generally retarded the setting time and decreased DC, although its effect was dependent on the 4-META concentration. A higher amount of zinc ion retarded the setting reaction in the presence of 4-META. The zinc particles mixed with 10% zinc sulfate and acetic acid solutions could induce the polymerization of UDMA containing BPO when the amine and 4-META were absent.  (+info)