Bronchial artery perfusion scintigraphy to assess bronchial artery blood flow after lung transplantation.
The bronchial arterial system is inevitably interrupted in transplanted lungs when removing the organs from the donor, but it can be reestablished by direct bronchial artery revascularization (BAR) during implantation. The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the distribution of bronchial artery perfusion after en bloc double lung transplantation with BAR, by injecting radiolabeled macroaggregated albumin directly into the bronchial artery system. METHODS: BAR was performed using the internal mammary artery as conduit. Patients were imaged 1 mo (n = 13) or 2 y (n = 9) after en bloc double lung transplantation with BAR. Immediately after bronchial arteriography, 100 MBq macroaggregated albumin (45,000 particles) were injected through the arteriographic catheter. Gamma camera studies were then acquired in the anterior position. At the end of imaging, with the patient remaining in exactly the same position, 81mKr-ventilation scintigraphy or conventional intravenous pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy or both were performed. Images were evaluated by visual analysis, and a semiquantitative assessment of the bronchial arterial supply to the peripheral parts of the lungs was obtained with conventional pulmonary scintigraphy. RESULTS: The bronchial artery scintigraphic images showed that the major part of the bronchial arterial flow supplied central thoracic structures, but bronchial artery perfusion could also be demonstrated in the peripheral parts of the lungs when compared with conventional pulmonary scintigraphy. There were no differences between scintigrams obtained from patients studied 1 mo and 2 y post-transplantation. CONCLUSION: Total distribution of bronchial artery supply to the human lung has been visualized in lung transplant patients. This study demonstrates that this nutritive flow reaches even the most peripheral parts of the lungs and is present 1 mo as well as 2 y after lung transplantation. The results suggest that bronchial artery revascularization may be of significance for the long-term status of the lung transplant. (+info)
Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma can obstruct hepatic ducts and involve the portal veins. Both biliary stasis and decrease in portal venous flow are known to reduce 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) accumulation. The specific relationship between these pathological conditions due to hilar cholangiocarcinomas and 99mTc-GSA accumulation has never been clarified. METHODS: Sixteen patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas who underwent 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy were reviewed. The relationship between significant decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation and lobar biliary stasis, or decrease in the portal venous flow, was evaluated. Average counts of region of interest placed in both right and left lobes were compared in the same transaxial SPECT section. Count ratios of right and left lobes were calculated. RESULTS: Significant lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation was observed in 6 of the 16 patients. Ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in all these 6 patients, whereas ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in only 1 of the other 10 patients. Symmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 13 patients, and asymmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 3. Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation correlated well with decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow (P < 0.0005). The count ratio was significantly reduced when unilateral portal venous flow decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy, we can predict lobar decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow and monitor hepatic functional lateralities in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas. (+info)
Orexin A but not orexin B rapidly enters brain from blood by simple diffusion.
We determined the ability of orexin A and orexin B, recently discovered endogenous appetite enhancers, to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of mice. Multiple time-regression analysis showed that an i.v. bolus of 125I-orexin A rapidly entered the brain from the blood, with an influx rate (Ki = 2.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(-4) ml/g.min) many times faster than that of the 99mTc-albumin control. This relatively rapid rate of entry was not reduced by administration of excess orexin A (or leptin) or by fasting for 22 h, even when penetration into only the hypothalamus was measured. Lack of saturability also was shown by perfusion in blood-free buffer. HPLC revealed that most of the injected 125I-orexin A reached the brain as intact peptide. Capillary depletion studies showed that the administered peptide did not remain bound to the endothelial cells comprising the BBB but reached the brain parenchyma. Efflux of 125I-orexin A from the brain occurred at the same rate as 99mTc-albumin. The octanol/buffer partition coefficient of 0.232 showed that orexin A was highly lipophilic, whereas the value for orexin B was only 0.030. Orexin B, moreover, was rapidly degraded in blood, so no 125I-orexin B could be detected in intact form in brain when injected peripherally. Thus, although orexin B is rapidly metabolized in blood and has low lipophilicity, orexin A rapidly crosses the BBB from blood to reach brain tissue by the process of simple diffusion. (+info)
Pulmonary perfusion is more uniform in the prone than in the supine position: scintigraphy in healthy humans.
The main purpose of this study was to find out whether the dominant dorsal lung perfusion while supine changes to a dominant ventral lung perfusion while prone. Regional distribution of pulmonary blood flow was determined in 10 healthy volunteers. The subjects were studied in both prone and supine positions with and without lung distension caused by 10 cmH2O of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Radiolabeled macroaggregates of albumin, rapidly trapped by pulmonary capillaries in proportion to blood flow, were injected intravenously. Tomographic gamma camera examinations (single-photon-emission computed tomography) were performed after injections in the different positions. All data acquisitions were made with the subject in the supine position. CPAP enhanced perfusion differences along the gravitational axis, which was more pronounced in the supine than prone position. Diaphragmatic sections of the lung had a more uniform pulmonary blood flow distribution in the prone than supine position during both normal and CPAP breathing. It was concluded that the dominant dorsal lung perfusion observed when the subjects were supine was not changed into a dominant ventral lung perfusion when the subjects were prone. Lung perfusion was more uniformly distributed in the prone compared with in the supine position, a difference that was more marked during total lung distension (CPAP) than during normal breathing. (+info)
99mTc technegas ventilation and perfusion lung scintigraphy for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus.
Lung scintigraphy is used widely for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus (PE). Technegas ventilation imaging has many advantages over other methods, but little outcome data exists on this technique. The aims of this study were to better define the role of lung scintigraphy in the management of patients with suspected PE and to evaluate technegas ventilation imaging by following patient outcomes. METHODS: A group of 717 out of 834 consecutive patients, referred to a university teaching hospital for lung scintigraphy to confirm or refute the diagnosis of PE, was followed for 18-30 mo to determine clinical outcome. The follow-up endpoints were death as a result of PE, death as a result of hemorrhage after treatment for PE, uncomplicated survival, survival with subsequent PE, nonfatal hemorrhage after treatment for PE and recurrence of PE in treated patients. Ventilation imaging was performed using technegas, and perfusion imaging was performed using intravenous 99mTc macroaggregated albumin. The modified PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) diagnostic criterion was used for interpretation of lung scintigraphy. RESULTS: Diagnostic results included 3.5% normal studies, 67.4% assessed as low probability for PE, 10% as moderate probability for PE and 19.1% as high probability for PE. A total of 231 patents received therapy with heparin, followed by warfarin, including those receiving anticoagulation therapy for other conditions. Ninety-six percent of patients with normal and low probability studies (n = 508) had good outcomes, 6 patients died as a result of PE and 12 subsequently developed PE. The odds ratio for death by PE in this group was 0.2. Of the 72 moderate probability studies, 39 patients were untreated. In this group there was 1 death due to PE, and PE subsequently developed in 2 patients. None of the remaining 33 treated patients died, but 4 patients experienced bleeding complications. The odds ratio for death by PE in the moderate probability group was 0.7. In those patients with high-probability studies, there were 8 deaths by PE, 6 deaths by hemorrhage, 11 nonfatal hemorrhages and 7 patients who experienced recurrences of PE. The odds ratios in this group were 6 and 10 for death by PE, or death by PE and the treatment of PE, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of the modified PIOPED diagnostic classification is valid for technegas lung scintigraphy. Using technegas, normal/low-probability and high-probability results are highly predictive of respective outcomes. Technegas lung scintigraphy reduces the number of indeterminate studies. (+info)
Lymphoscintigraphy in tumors of the head and neck using double tracer technique.
Knowledge of possible lymphatic drainage may facilitate planning of surgery for patients with head and neck tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present a method of lymphoscintigraphy with special attention to an accurate correlation of lymphatic drainage to anatomic regions. METHODS: Lymphoscintigraphy was performed using a double tracer technique before surgery in a total of 75 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. All patients received 100 MBq 99mTc-colloid at three to four peritumoral sites. A perchlorate solution (2 mL) was given orally to block salivary glands and the thyroid gland. Patients received 50 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate intravenously for body contouring 20 min postinjection. Planar images were obtained over 5 min each, at 30 min and 4 h postinjection from anterior, right lateral and left lateral views with a large-field-of-view gamma camera. Lymphatic drainage was assessed by visual inspection and assigned to six cervical compartments. RESULTS: Neither the salivary glands nor the thyroid gland were seen in any of the patients. In 22 of 75 patients (29.3%), the injection site was the only focal tracer uptake seen. In contrast, lymphatic drainage was identified in the remaining 53 patients (70.7%), and lymph nodes could be assigned easily to the six cervical compartments. Of 75 patients, 36 (48%) exhibited ipsilateral lymphatic drainage. In addition, 17 patients (22.7%) with unilateral tumor showed bilateral (n = 12), contralateral (n = 2) or retropharyngeal (n = 3) lymphatic drainage. In 3 of these 17 patients, bilateral lymph node metastases were proven. A subgroup of 12 patients (16%) exhibited N2c nodal status, despite a unilateral localized primary tumor. In 3 of these 12 patients, surgery was extended as a result of scintigraphic findings from unilateral toward bilateral neck dissection, and histology confirmed nodal involvement in these patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphoscintigraphy using the double tracer technique allows an accurate correlation of lymphatic drainage to the six cervical compartments. This may provide the basis for a re-evaluation of its impact in treatment planning of patients with head and neck tumors. (+info)
99mTc-human serum albumin: an effective radiotracer for identifying sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma.
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has emerged as a novel approach for identifying patients with melanoma and regional nodal micrometastasis who may benefit from full nodal basin resection. To identify the pattern of tumor lymphatic drainage and the SLN, lymphoscintigraphy has been performed using primarily 99mTc-sulfur colloid (SC). In this study, we compare the efficacy of SLN biopsy using 99mTc-human serum albumin (HSA) with SLN biopsy after SC-based lymphoscintigraphy. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with localized cutaneous melanoma were studied. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of HSA in 85 patients and SC in 21 patients. Four patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy twice, once with SC and once with HSA. Dynamic images were acquired for up to 1 h, followed by high-count images of the SLN in various projections so that the most likely site was marked on the skin for biopsy. Intraoperatively, blue dye was injected around the primary site. Twenty-four patients underwent SLN dissection directed by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and vital blue dye mapping; in the remaining 80 patients, a gamma probe was added intraoperatively to the localization procedure. Two patients underwent mapping with gamma probe alone. RESULTS: Draining lymphatic basins and nodes were identified by lymphoscintigraphy in all patients. The SLN was identified in 95% of patients when both blue dye and intraoperative gamma probe were used. When 99mTc-HSA was used for imaging, 98% of the SLNs ultimately identified were radiolabeled, and 82% were both hot and blue. Of the SLN recovered with SC, all the nodes were radiolabeled; however, there was only 58% hot and blue concordance. Greater numbers of SLNs were removed in the SC group (median 2.0 versus 1.0, P = 0.02); however, the incidence of micrometastasis was statistically similar in both HSA and SC cohorts. In the 4 patients examined with both tracers, SLN mapping was similar. CONCLUSION: Although SC has been the radiotracer of choice for SLN mapping in melanoma, HSA appears to be a suitable alternative, with identical success rates. In fact, the higher concordance between hot and blue nodes using HSA suggests superiority of this tracer for this purpose. (+info)
Asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy in evaluation of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy in the post-transplant monitoring of liver graft and native liver functions in recipients of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) from living donors. METHODS: We performed 36 asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphies on 13 patients who had undergone APOLT for noncirrhotic metabolic liver diseases or for small-for-size grafts. The portal vein of the native liver was separated in 12 patients. Anterior dynamic images including the heart and both livers were obtained for 16 min after intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA), and thereafter static SPECT images of both livers were obtained. Uptake rates from the blood to the graft and to the native liver were determined separately by Patlak plot graphical analysis. Relative uptake of GSA by the graft was calculated from transverse SPECT images. The relative volume of the graft liver was determined by CT. RESULTS: The relative uptake of GSA by the graft was higher or increased more rapidly than the relative volume of the graft in 8 of 11 patients with no severe complications concerning the graft. The relative uptake by severely damaged graft liver in 2 patients was much lower than the relative volume. The uptake rate of GSA by the graft was low in these 2 patients. The uptake rate by the native liver decreased when the portal vein was separated. CONCLUSION: The relative uptake of GSA was a better indicator of graft liver function than was anatomic volume. The uptake rate provided additional independent information of each liver. Asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy is useful for distinguishing and monitoring the graft and native liver functions in patients who had undergone APOLT. (+info)