Teaching pedestrian skills to retarded persons: generalization from the classroom to the natural environment.
Little attention has been given to teaching adaptive community skills to retarded persons. In this study, five retarded male students were taught basic pedestrian skills in a classroom- Training was conducted on a model built to simulate city traffic conditions. Each subject was taught five specific skills involved in street crossing in sequence, viz. intersection recognition, pedestrian-light skills, traffic-light skills, and skills for two different stop-sign conditions. Before, during, and after training, subjects were tested on generalization probes on model and under actual city traffic conditions. Results of a multiple-baseline design acorss both subjects and behaviors indicated that after receiving classroom training on the skills, each subject exhibited appropriate pedestrian skills under city traffic conditions. In addition, training in some skills appeared to facilitate performance in skills not yet trained. (+info)
Teaching coin summation to the mentally retarded.
A procedure to teach four mild and moderately retarded persons to sum the value of coin combinations was tested. Subjects were first taught to count a single target coin, and then to sum that coin in combination with coins previously trained. Five American coins and various combinations were trained. Modelling, modelling with subject participation, and independent counting by the subject constituted the training sequence. The subjects improved from a mean pretest score of 29% to 92% correct at posttest. A four-week followup score showed a mean of 79% correct. A multiple-baseline design suggested that improvement in coin-counting performance occurred only after the coin was trained. The results indicate that this procedure has potential for teaching the retarded to sum combinations of coinds in 5 to 6 hr of instruction. (+info)
Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality?
This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis. (+info)
Do studies of the nature of cases mislead about the reality of cases? A response to Pattison et al.
This article questions whether many are misled by current case studies. Three broad types of style of case study are described. A stark style, based on medical case studies, a fictionalised style in reaction, and a personal statement made in discussion groups by an original protagonist. Only the second type fits Pattison's category. Language remains an important issue, but to be examined as the case is lived in discussion rather than as a potentially reductionist study of the case as text. (+info)
The contribution of interagency collaboration to the promotion of young people's sexual health.
This paper employs a case study approach in order to examine the contribution of interagency working to the delivery of education and services in the difficult field of young people's sexual health. It reports on a collaborative UK initiative involving teachers, community health practitioners, health promotion staff, and youth and community workers. The provision included school-based sex education, drop-in advice and information facilities, 'detached' street work, and a young person's clinic. A qualitative study was completed involving detailed interviews with 25 staff from the different agencies involved. The findings suggest that interagency collaboration can enhance the work of each organization, and can achieve a comprehensive response to young people's sexual health needs by making positive use of the distinctive roles, skills, knowledge and approaches of the different agencies. The potential that such a collaboration will have a significant impact on young people's sexual health is discussed. (+info)
Randomized controlled trial of teaching practice nurses to carry out structured assessments of patients receiving depot antipsychotic injections.
BACKGROUND: A third of patients with schizophrenia are out of contact with secondary services. Many of these patients receive maintenance medication as depot antipsychotics from practice nurses, most of whom have negligible training in mental health. AIM: To examine the impact of a structured assessment on the process of care and clinical status of schizophrenia patients by practice nurses who received a one-day training course. METHOD: All identified patients were randomly allocated to structured assessments and outcome, measured by the number of assessments and the changes in care recorded in primary care notes. A comprehensive assessment of clinical and social functioning and level of unmet need in intervention and control patients was carried out after one year by an independent researcher. RESULTS: A high rate of consultation and clinical need in this patient group was demonstrated. Practice nurses were more diligent in carrying out assessments than general practitioners (GPs), but there was no impact on treatment patterns or clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Structured assessments by practice nurses are feasible with this patient group, but training, targeted at both nurses and GPs, is needed if this intervention is to translate into health gain. (+info)
Comparing ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of educational planning.
To compare ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of the use of educational planning (setting goals, assessing needs, formulating objectives, choosing methods, and providing feedback and evaluation) in the office setting, we mailed a survey, which was returned by 127 longitudinal ambulatory preceptors and 168 first-year and second-year medical students. Faculty perceptions did not match student perceptions of what occurred in the longitudinal preceptor program teaching sessions in educational planning areas. Students perceived these activities were occurring with much less frequency than faculty perceived. Medical education needs to move beyond the usual faculty development workshop paradigm to a more comprehensive educational development model that includes training both faculty and students in core educational skills. This will enable the ambulatory setting to reach its full educational potential in training future physicians. (+info)
Critical appraisal using the READER method: a workshop-based controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Critical reading is an important skill for those trying to practice evidence-based medicine. There are a number of recognized structures for critical reading, including the READER model. These methods should be subjected to high-quality studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the READER method in a practical teaching setting using the highest quality research methodology. METHODS: We carried out a modified randomized controlled trial. Two groups of GP trainers were invited to appraise critically the two articles using either the READER acronym or a semi-structured free appraisal. RESULTS: Of 99 participants in the workshop, 92 completed the study. One-third of participants (33.7%) read more than five articles per month and those who had been in practice the longest read fewer articles (P<0.05). Both groups attributed the lowest score to paper 2. The median total scores were higher using the READER method, although only significant for paper 2 (P<0.05). The median score attributed to the methodology was lower using the READER method than the free appraisal, although this difference was only significant for paper 1 (P<0.05). Overall, 51% (70% of the READER group) believed that taking part in the exercise would encourage them to be more critical of published articles in the future. CONCLUSION: Those using the READER method attributed a higher total score, but were more critical of the methodology than those using a free appraisal. Participants found the study useful and believed that it would be of help in future critical appraisal. The study raises interesting questions about the relative importance to GPs of methodological rigour compared with other factors when evaluating research papers. (+info)