(1/79) New taxane diterpenoid from seed of the Chinese yew, Taxus yunnanensis.
A novel taxane diterpenoid with a rearranged 5/7/6-membered ring system was isolated from seeds of the Chinese yew, Taxus yunnanensis. Its structure was established as 9alpha,13alpha-diacetoxy-10beta-benzoxy-5alpha- cinnamoyl-11(1 5-->1)-abeotaxa-4(20),11-dien-15-ol on the basis of a spectroscopic analysis. Its relative stereochemistry is proposed from the results of NOESY experiments. (+info)
(2/79) Two novel taxane diterpenoids from the needles of Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata.
Two novel taxane diterpenoids were isolated from the needles of Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata, and their structures were determined to be lbeta-hydroxy-7beta-acetoxytaxinine (1) and lbeta,7beta-dihydroxytaxinine (2) on the basis of spectral analyses including 2D-NMR studies. (+info)
(3/79) Reversal of P-glycoprotein and multidrug-resistance protein-mediated drug resistance in KB cells by 5-O-benzoylated taxinine K.
A newly synthesized taxoid originally from the Japanese yew Taxus cuspidata, 5-O-benzoylated taxinine K (BTK) was examined for its ability to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-mediated multidrug resistance. BTK reversed the resistance to paclitaxel, doxorubicin (ADM), and vincristine (VCR) of KB-8-5 and KB-C2 cells that overexpress P-gp by directly interacting with P-gp. BTK also moderately reversed the resistance to ADM of KB/MRP cells that overexpress MRP. However, BTK neither inhibited the transporting activity of MRP nor reduced intracellular glutathione levels in KB/MRP cells. BTK shifted the distribution of ADM in KB/MRP cells from punctate cytoplasmic compartments to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm by inhibiting acidification of cytoplasmic organelles. These two functions of BTK make it able to reverse both P-gp- and MRP-mediated MDR. BTK in combination with ADM should be useful for treating patients with tumors that overexpress both P-gp and MRP. (+info)
(4/79) Intramolecular proton transfer in the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to the taxadiene precursor of taxol catalyzed by recombinant taxadiene synthase.
BACKGROUND: The committed step in the biosynthesis of the anticancer drug taxol in yew (Taxus) species is the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene. The enzyme taxadiene synthase catalyzes this complex olefin cation cyclization cascade involving the formation of three rings and three stereogenic centers. RESULTS: Recombinant taxadiene synthase was incubated with specifically deuterated substrates, and the mechanism of cyclization was probed using MS and NMR analyses of the products to define the crucial hydrogen migration and terminating deprotonation steps. The electrophilic cyclization involves the ionization of the diphosphate with closure of the A-ring, followed by a unique intramolecular transfer of the C11 proton to the re-face of C7 to promote closure of the B/C-ring juncture, and cascade termination by proton elimination from the beta-face of C5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into the molecular architecture of the first dedicated step of taxol biosynthesis that creates the taxane carbon skeleton, and they have broad implications for the general mechanistic capability of the large family of terpenoid cyclization enzymes. (+info)
(5/79) New 11(15-->1)abeotaxane, 11(15-->1),11(10-->9)bisabeotaxane and 3,11-cyclotaxanes from Taxus yunnanensis.
Chemical examination of the seeds of Chinese yew, Taxus yunnanensis Cheng et L. K. Fu resulted in the isolation of an 11(15-->1)abeotaxane, an 11(15-->1), 11(10-->9)bisabeotaxane and two 3,11-cyclotaxanes. The structures of these new taxoids were established as 13alpha-acetoxy-5alpha-cinnamoyloxy-11(15-->1)abeotaxa-4(20),11-diene-9alpha,10be ta,15-triol (1), 20-acetoxy-2alpha-benzoyloxy-4alpha, 5alpha, 7beta, 9alpha, 13alpha-pentahydroxy-11(15-->1), 11(10-->9) bisabeotax-11-eno-10,15-lactone (2), 2alpha,10beta-diacetoxy-5alpha-cinnamoyloxy-9alpha-hydroxy-3,11 -cyclotax-4(20)-en-13-one (3) and 10beta-acetoxy-2alpha,5alpha,9alpha-trihydroxy-3,11-cyclotax-4(20)-en-13-one (4) on the basis of spectral analyses. (+info)
(6/79) Taxol biosynthesis: taxane 13 alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase.
A central feature in the biosynthesis of Taxol is oxygenation at multiple positions of the taxane core structure, reactions that are considered to be mediated by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. A PCR-based differential display-cloning approach, using Taxus (yew) cells induced for Taxol production, yielded a family of related cytochrome P450 genes, one of which was assigned as a taxane 10 beta-hydroxylase by functional expression in yeast. The acquired clones that did not function in yeast were heterologously expressed by using the Spodoptera fugiperda-baculovirus-based system and were screened for catalytic capability by using taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5 alpha-ol and its acetate ester as test substrates. This approach allowed identification of one of the cytochrome P450 clones (which bore 63% deduced sequence identity to the aforementioned taxane 10 beta-hydroxylase) as a taxane 13 alpha-hydroxylase by chromatographic and spectrometric characterization of the corresponding recombinant enzyme product. The demonstration of a second relevant hydroxylase from the induced family of cytochrome P450 genes validates this strategy for elucidating the oxygenation steps of taxane diterpenoid (taxoid) metabolism. Additionally, substrate specificity studies with the available cytochrome P450 hydroxylases now indicate that there is likely more than one biosynthetic route to Taxol in yew species. (+info)
(7/79) New taxane diterpenoids from the roots of Taiwanese Taxus mairei.
Five new taxane diterpenoids, taxumairols G (1), H (2), I (3), J (4), and L (5) were isolated from extracts of the roots of Taiwanese Taxus mairei (LEMEE & LEVL.) S. Y. Hu. Compounds 1-4 belong to the new 11(15-->1)-abeo-taxene system, having a tetrahydrofuran ring along carbons C-2, C-3, C-4 and C-20. Compounds 3 and 4 contain an isopropenyl group at C-1 while compounds 1 and 2 are attached with a benzoxyl group at C-15. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined on the basis of two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. (+info)
(8/79) The final acylation step in taxol biosynthesis: cloning of the taxoid C13-side-chain N-benzoyltransferase from Taxus.
The formation of several acyl groups and an amide group of Taxol is catalyzed by regioselective CoA thioester-dependent acyltransferases. Several full-length acyltransferase sequences, obtained from a cDNA library constructed from mRNA isolated from Taxus cuspidata cells induced for Taxol production with methyl jasmonate, were individually expressed in Escherichia coli, from which a cDNA clone encoding a 3'-N-debenzoyl- 2'-deoxytaxol N-benzoyltransferase was identified. This recombinant enzyme catalyzes the stereoselective coupling of the surrogate substrate N-debenzoyl-(3'RS)-2'-deoxytaxol with benzoyl-CoA to form predominantly one 3'-epimer of 2'-deoxytaxol. The product 2'-deoxytaxol was confirmed by radio-HPLC,(1)H-NMR, and chemical ionization-MS. This enzymatic reaction constitutes the final acylation in the Taxol biosynthetic pathway. The full-length cDNA coding for the N-benzoyltransferase has an ORF of 1,323 nucleotides and encodes a 441-residue protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49,040. The recombinant enzyme expressed in E. coli has a pH optimum at 8.0, a k(cat) approximately 1.5 +/- 0.3 s(-1) and K(m) values of 0.42 mM and 0.40 mM for the N-deacylated taxoid and benzoyl-CoA, respectively. In addition to improving the production yields of Taxol in genetically engineered host systems, this enzyme provides a means of attaching modified aroyl groups to taxoid precursors for the purpose of improving drug efficacy. (+info)