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(1/2394) Dose-escalation study of docetaxel in combination with mitoxantrone as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

PURPOSE: To define the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of docetaxel in combination with mitoxantrone in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with MBC (median age, 61 years) were enrolled. Thirty-eight (93%) had performance status (World Health Organization [WHO]) 0, 29 (71%) were postmenopausal, and 21 (51%) had estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Patients received escalated doses of docetaxel (75 to 100 mg/m2) on day 1 and mitoxantrone (8 to 22 mg/m2) on day 8. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 217 chemotherapy cycles were administered. Without recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) support, the MTD1 occurred at the first dose level (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone 8 mg/m2); DLTs were febrile neutropenia, grade 4 neutropenia lasting more than 5 days, and grade 3 diarrhea. With prophylactic rhG-CSF, the MTD2 was docetaxel 100 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone 20 mg/m2; DLTs were febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia. Nine (22%) patients developed neutropenia after the first cycle of treatment. A total of 19 episodes of febrile neutropenia (9% of the cycles) occurred during the whole period of the study; there were no toxic deaths. At high docetaxel (100 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (> 12 mg/m2) dose levels, a significant decrease of the absolute lymphocyte number was observed; immunophenotyping revealed that all lymphocyte subpopulations were reduced. Grades 2 and 3 neurosensory toxicity occurred in six patients (15%) and one patient (2%), respectively. No cardiac toxicity was observed. Nine complete responses (22%) and 23 partial responses (56%) were achieved (overall response rate, 78%; 95% confidence interval, 62.5% to 88.8%). The median duration of response was 12.5 months, and the median time to tumor progression was 14.5 months. CONCLUSION: The reported combination of docetaxel and mitoxantrone with G-CSF support is a safe, intensified, well-tolerated, and effective regimen as first-line treatment in patients with MBC.  (+info)

(2/2394) Front-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with docetaxel and gemcitabine: a multicenter phase II trial.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine 900 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously on day 8 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (150 microg/m2, subcutaneously) support from day 9 to day 15. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 64 years. The World Health Organization performance status was 0 to 1 in 39 patients and 2 in 12 patients. Fifteen patients (29%) had stage IIIB disease, and 36 (71%) had stage IV; histology was mainly squamous cell carcinoma (59%). A partial response was achieved in 19 patients (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 24% to 50%); stable disease and progressive disease were each observed in 16 patients (31.4%). The median duration of response and the time to tumor progression were 5 and 6 months, respectively. The median survival was 13 months, and the actuarial 1-year survival was 50.7%. Grade 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia were rare (2%). Four patients (8%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, and all were complicated with fever; there was no treatment-related death. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurred in three patients (6%), grade 2 or 3 neurotoxicity in four patients (8%), grade 2 or 3 asthenia in 10 patients (20%), and grade 2 or 3 edema in 10 patients (20%). CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel/gemcitabine is well tolerated, can be used for outpatients, and is active for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. This treatment merits further comparison with other cisplatin- or carboplatin-based combinations.  (+info)

(3/2394) Phase I trial of docetaxel with estramustine in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel when combined with oral estramustine and dexamethasone in a phase I study in patients with progressive metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four men were stratified into minimally pretreated (MPT) and extensively pretreated (EPT) groups. Estramustine 280 mg PO tid was administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals on days 1 through 5, with escalated doses of docetaxel from 40 to 80 mg/m2 on day 2. Treatment was repeated every 21 days. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were assessable for toxicity and 33 for response. In the MPT patients, dose-limiting myelosuppression was reached at 80 mg/m2, with six patients experiencing grade 3/4 granulocytopenia. In EPT patients, escalation above 70 mg/m2 was not attempted. Fourteen MPT (70%) and six EPT (50%) patients had a > or = 50% decline in serum PSA on two consecutive measurements taken at least 2 weeks apart. The overall 50% PSA response rate was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 81%). Of the 18 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, five (28%; 95% CI, 11% to 54%) achieved a partial response. At the time of entry onto the study, 15 patients required narcotic analgesics for bone pain; after treatment, eight (53%) discontinued their pain medications. The area under the curve for docetaxel increased linearly from 40 to 70 mg/m2. At 80 mg/m2, the measured area under the curve was 8.37 (standard deviation, 0.724), which was significantly higher than the previously reported values. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of docetaxel combined with estramustine is 70 mg/m2 in MPT patients and 60 mg/m2 in EPT patients. This combination is active in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer.  (+info)

(4/2394) Phase I trial of the combination of daily estramustine phosphate and intermittent docetaxel in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate carcinoma.

BACKGROUND: To apply our preclinical findings of cytotoxic synergy with the combination of estramustine phosphate (EP) and docetaxel as the basis of treatment of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer in man. To determine the optimal dosage and the toxicities of these two agents for future trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer who were ambulatory with performance status < or = 2, normal marrow, renal and hepatic function were entered. Prior exposure to EP or a taxane were exclusion factors. EP was given orally at a dose of 14 mg/kg of body weight daily with concurrent docetaxel administered every 21 days as an intravenous infusion over 1 hour with dexamethasone 8 mg. PO BID for five days. EP dosages were kept static; docetaxel dosages were explored in a minimum of three patients per level for dosages of 40, 60, 70, and 80 mg/m2. Patients were evaluated weekly. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was measured every three weeks. RESULTS: Five patients were entered at a docetaxel dose of 40 mg/m2, three at 60 mg/m2, six at 70 mg/m2, and three at 80 mg/m2. Only one patient had received prior chemotherapy. Grades 1 or 2 hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were seen at all dosage levels. Other grade 2 or less toxicities not related to dosage included alopecia, anorexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, and epigastric pain. Dose limiting toxicities (DLT) as grade 4 leukopenia and grade 4 fatigue were seen at 80 mg/m2. The phase II dose was defined at 70 mg/m2 with rapidly reversible leukopenia and minor liver function abnormalities. At this dosing level, dose intensity was 88% and 86% over consecutive cycles for docetaxel and EP, respectively. Two vascular events occurred at this dose level (70 mg/m2): one arterial and the other venous. PSA decreases greater than 50% from baseline were seen in 14 of 17 patients at all dosage levels. Four of the 17 patients demonstrated a complete biochemical response (PSA < or = 4 ng/ml). One patient had a partial response with measurable lung and liver lesions. CONCLUSION: EP given continuously with every three-week docetaxel at a dose of 70 mg/m2 is tolerable with evidence of antitumor activity based upon significant declines in PSA in the majority of patients and improvement of lung metastasis in one patient. Larger phase II studies of this combination in a homogenous population are warranted.  (+info)

(5/2394) Docetaxel and cisplatin: an active regimen in patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Results of a phase II study of the EORTC Early Clinical Studies Group.

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel and cisplatin are among the most active antitumor agents in head and neck cancer, and phase I studies found the combination of the two drugs to be feasible. The EORTC ECSG performed a multicenter phase II study in patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck to evaluate the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of this combination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility criteria included written informed consent, a WHO performance status < 2, life expectancy of > 12 weeks, and adequate bone marrow, liver and renal function. Neoadjuvant pretreatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy or prior radiotherapy were allowed. Patients were ineligible if pretreated with taxoids, had CNS involvement, concurrent malignancy, peripheral neuropathy, or no measurable disease. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 100 mg/m2 (one-hour i.v. infusion), followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (three-hour i.v. infusion), repeated every three weeks. Supportive care included hydration, 5HT3-antagonists, and corticosteroids. RESULTS: Forty-four patients (median age 55 years, range 35-76) entered the trial; 41 patients were eligible, 164 cycles of treatment were evaluable for toxicity, and 31 patients for response. Fourteen patients had undergone prior surgery, 15 had received radiotherapy, and five had had chemotherapy. A median number of four treatment cycles (range 1-6) was given. Hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were common, but hypersensitivity reactions and fluid retention were very infrequent due to corticosteroid prophylaxis. Four patients were taken off the study due to toxicity, and one toxic death occurred due to pneumonia. Among 41 eligible patients, objective responses as confirmed by independent review included six complete remissions and 16 partial remissions, resulting in an overall response rate of 53.7% (95% confidence interval: 37.4%-69.3%). Responses occurred in locally advanced, recurrent and metastatic disease, both in pre- and non-pretreated patients. Of 22 evaluable, non-pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, five achieved complete responses, and 14 partial responses. Observed among nine evaluable pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer were one complete response and two partial responses. CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel and cisplatin is feasible and active in locally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  (+info)

(6/2394) Docetaxel in the community setting: an analysis of 377 breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel (Taxotere) in the UK. UK Study Group.

BACKGROUND: Given as first- or second-line chemotherapy docetaxel appears to have great potential in advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-seven locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer patients received docetaxel (Taxotere) as part of a named patient programme under the care of 108 oncologists from 61 cancer units across the UK. The recommended starting dose was 100 mg/m2, but patients at higher risk of toxicity started at 75 mg/m2. All patients received corticosteroid premedication. The modal number of prior chemotherapy regimens was 2 (range 1-7). 342 patients (91%) had at least one prior anthracycline-based regimen. RESULTS: Response was graded according to the managing clinician's best judgement without formal criteria. The overall response rate (ORR) was 46% among the 331 evaluable patients. 46% among the 299 patients who were anthracycline resistant and 35% among the 82 patients who were anthracycline refractory (progressive disease being the best response obtained to the most recent anthracycline containing regimen). One hundred and ninety-three patients started at the full dose of 100 mg/m2 with an ORR of 55% and 129 started at 75 mg m2 with an ORR of 33%. In October 1997, some two years after the programme had started, 26 of 377 patients were still alive, although no complete remissions have lasted to this date. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis yielded a median survival of 194 days (95% CI: 178-218 days). Haematological parameters were checked before each course of docetaxel and additionally as clinically indicated. The safety data confirmed that docetaxel has a manageable, predictable side effect profile; 29 of 377 (7.7%) patients were hospitalised as a result of neutropenic sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this named patient programme over a two year timespan confirm that docetaxel is an effective chemotherapy option in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer, including an 'anthracycline refractory' population.  (+info)

(7/2394) Salvage chemotherapy in anthracycline-pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients with docetaxel and gemcitabine: a multicenter phase II trial. Greek Breast Cancer Cooperative Group.

PURPOSE: The activity of the docetaxel-gemcitabine combination in women with disease progression after initial chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) was investigated in a multicenter phase II study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with metastatic breast cancer who had disease relapse or progression after completion of an anthracycline-based front-line regimen were treated with gemcitabine 900 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8 and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 on day 8. G-CSF 150 mucg/m2/d s.c. was given from day 9 to day 16 and the treatment was repeated every three weeks. The patients' median age was 57 years and the performance status (WHO) was 0 for 26, 1 for 20 and 2 for 6 patients. The treatment was second-line for 27 (52%) and > or = third-line for 25 (48%) patients. All patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. RESULTS: Complete response occurred in seven (14%) patients and partial response in 21 (40%) for an overall response rate of 54% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 40%-67%). Fifteen (29%) patients had stable disease and nine (17%) progressive disease. Of 25 patients previously treated with taxanes. 11 (44%) responded (1 CR, 10 PR). Interestingly, in four patients with disease progression while receiving docetaxel or paclitaxel monotherapy, the docetaxel + gemcitabine combination achieved partial responses. Responses were observed at all metastatic sites (local disease 62%, lymph nodes 58%, skin 44%, lung 47% and liver 36%) with a median duration of response of 3.6 months (range 1-16) and a median time to disease progression of eight months (range 2-18.5). Grade 3 neutropenia developed in 10 (19%) and grade 4 in five (10%) patients. Neutropenia was associated with infection in four patients without toxic deaths. Grade 3 thrombocytopenia developed in nine (17%) patients and grade 4 in two (4%). Non-hematologic toxicity was usually mild. CONCLUSION: The docetaxel-gemcitabine combination is an active and well tolerated salvage treatment in patients with MBC. Previous treatment with taxanes does not preclude a good clinical response to this regimen.  (+info)

(8/2394) A phase I study of docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced solid malignancies.

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of administering docetaxel (Taxotere; Rhone-Poulenc-Rorer) as a one-hour intravenous (i.v.) infusion on day 1 combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a bolus i.v. injection for five (days 1-5) or three (days 1-3) consecutive days every four weeks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with 115 total courses involving seven dose levels of the two regimens of docetaxel and 5-FU (docetaxel/5-FU [mg/m2]/mg/m2/d]). In an effort to reduce fluid retention and hypersensitivity phenomena related to docetaxel, patients received premedication with dexamethasone 8 mg orally twice daily for three consecutive days beginning 24 hours before treatment. RESULTS: Severe (grade 4) neutropenia lasting longer than seven days with or without fever and/or severe mucositis, precluded further dose escalation above docetaxel 60 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5-FU 300 mg/m2/day administered on days 1-5 every four weeks. The rates of these toxic effects were also unacceptably high above docetaxel 60 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5-FU 300 mg/m2/day administered on days 1-3 every four weeks. Nine patients experienced various manifestations of fluid-retention that were potentially related to study drugs. However, neither treatment delay nor discontinuation of treatment was required. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue, were mild to modest in severity and occurred infrequently (< 10% of courses). Two patients with metastatic breast cancer experienced complete responses and a partial response occurred in a patient with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, the regimen of docetaxel 60 mg/m2 on day 1 followed by 5-FU 300 mg/m2/d i.v. for three or five days every four weeks is well tolerated and these doses are recommended for further evaluations. The feasibility of administering docetaxel 60 mg/m2 followed by 5-FU 300 mg/m2 for three or five days every four weeks and the preliminary antitumor activity noted indicate that further disease-directed studies of docetaxel and 5-FU are warranted in patients with relevant solid malignancies.  (+info)