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(1/145) Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum.

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

(2/145) Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells.

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

(3/145) 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes.

The aim of the present study was to identify the enzymes in human liver catalyzing hydroxylations of bile acids. Fourteen recombinant expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, human liver microsomes from different donors, and selective cytochrome P450 inhibitors were used to study the hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. Recombinant expressed CYP3A4 was the only enzyme that was active towards these bile acids and the enzyme catalyzed an efficient 6alpha-hydroxylation of both taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. The Vmax for 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid by CYP3A4 was 18.2 nmol/nmol P450/min and the apparent Km was 90 microM. Cytochrome b5 was required for maximal activity. Human liver microsomes from 10 different donors, in which different P450 marker activities had been determined, were separately incubated with taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. A strong correlation was found between 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid, CYP3A levels (r2=0.97) and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (r2=0.9). There was also a strong correlation between 6alpha-hydroxylation of lithocholic acid, CYP3A levels and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (r2=0.7). Troleandomycin, a selective inhibitor of CYP3A enzymes, inhibited 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid almost completely at a 10 microM concentration. Other inhibitors, such as alpha-naphthoflavone, sulfaphenazole and tranylcypromine had very little or no effect on the activity. The apparent Km for 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic by human liver microsomes was high (716 microM). This might give an explanation for the limited formation of 6alpha-hydroxylated bile acids in healthy humans. From the present results, it can be concluded that CYP3A4 is active in the 6alpha-hydroxylation of both taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid in human liver.  (+info)

(4/145) The bile acid taurochenodeoxycholate activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent survival signaling cascade.

Liver injury during cholestasis reflects a balance between the effects of toxic and nontoxic bile acids. However, the critical distinction between a toxic and nontoxic bile acid remains subtle and unclear. For example, the glycine conjugate of chenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induces hepatocyte apoptosis, whereas the taurine conjugate (TCDC) does not. We hypothesized that the dissimilar cellular responses may reflect differential activation of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathway. In the bile acid-transporting McNtcp.24 rat hepatoma cell line, TCDC, but not GCDC, stimulated PI3K activity. Consistent with this observation, inhibition of PI3K rendered TCDC cytotoxic, and constitutive activation of PI3K rendered GCDC nontoxic. Both Akt and the atypical protein kinase C isoform zeta (PKCzeta) have been implicated in PI3K-dependent survival signaling. However, TCDC activated PKCzeta, but not Akt. Moreover, inhibition of PKCzeta converted TCDC into a cytotoxic agent, whereas overexpression of wild-type PKCzeta blocked GCDC-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrate that TCDC activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in a PI3K- and PKCzeta-dependent manner. Moreover, inhibition of NF-kappaB by an IkappaB super-repressor rendered TCDC cytotoxic, suggesting that NF-kappaB is also necessary to prevent the cytotoxic effects of TCDC. Collectively, these data suggest that some hydrophobic bile acids such as TCDC activate PI3K-dependent survival pathways, which prevent their otherwise inherent toxicity.  (+info)

(5/145) Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent Ras activation by tauroursodesoxycholate in rat liver.

Ursodesoxycholic acid, widely used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease, causes choleretic, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects. Here the effects on choleresis of its taurine conjugate tauroursodesoxycholate (TUDC), which is present in the enterohepatic circulation, were correlated with the activation of important elements of intracellular signal transduction in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. TUDC induced a time- and concentration-dependent activation of the small GTP-binding protein Ras and of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in cultured hepatocytes. Ras activation was dependent on PI 3-kinase activity, without the involvement of protein kinase C- and genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinases. Ras activation by TUDC was followed by an activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-1 (Erk-1) and Erk-2. In perfused rat liver, PI 3-kinase inhibitors largely abolished the stimulatory effect of TUDC on taurocholate excretion, suggesting an important role for a PI 3-kinase/Ras/Erk pathway in the choleretic effect of TUDC.  (+info)

(6/145) Differences in Ca(2+) signaling underlie age-specific effects of secretagogues on colonic Cl(-) transport.

Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) stimulates Cl(-) transport in adult (AD), but not weanling (WN) and newborn (NB), rabbit colonic epithelial cells (colonocytes). The present study demonstrates that stimuli like neurotensin (NT) are also age specific and identifies the age-dependent signaling step. Bile acid actions are segment and bile acid specific. Thus although TDC and taurochenodeoxycholate stimulate Cl(-) transport in AD distal but not proximal colon, taurocholate has no effect in either segment. TDC increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in AD, but not in WN and NB, colonocytes. In AD cells, TDC (5 min) action on Cl(-) transport needs intra- but not extracellular Ca(2+). NT, histamine, and bethanechol increase Cl(-) transport and [Ca(2+)](i) in AD, but not WN, distal colonocytes. However, A-23187 increased [Ca(2+)](i) and Cl(-) transport in all age groups, suggesting that Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl(-) transport is present from birth. Study of the proximal steps in Ca(2+) signaling revealed that NT, but not TDC, activates a GTP-binding protein, Galpha(q), in AD and WN cells. In addition, although WN and AD colonocytes had similar levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, NT and TDC increased 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate content only in AD cells. Nonresponsiveness of WN cells to Ca(2+)-dependent stimuli, therefore, is due to the absence of measurable phospholipase C activity. Thus delays in Ca(2+) signaling afford a crucial protective mechanism to meet the changing demands of the developing colon.  (+info)

(7/145) Characterization of bile acid transport mediated by multidrug resistance associated protein 2 and bile salt export pump.

Biliary excretion of certain bile acids is mediated by multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and the bile salt export pump (Bsep). In the present study, the transport properties of several bile acids were characterized in canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) isolated from Sprague--Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) whose Mrp2 function is hereditarily defective and in membrane vesicles isolated from Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus containing cDNAs encoding Mrp2 and Bsep. ATP-dependent uptake of [(3)H]taurochenodeoxycholate sulfate (TCDC-S) (K(m)=8.8 microM) and [(3)H]taurolithocholate sulfate (TLC-S) (K(m)=1.5 microM) was observed in CMVs from SD rats, but not from EHBR. In addition, ATP-dependent uptake of [(3)H]TLC-S (K(m)=3.9 microM) and [(3)H]taurocholate (TC) (K(m)=7.5 microM) was also observed in Mrp2- and Bsep-expressing Sf9 membrane vesicles, respectively. TCDC-S and TLC-S inhibited the ATP-dependent TC uptake into CMVs from SD rats with IC(50) values of 4.6 microM and 1.2 microM, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values for Sf9 cells expressing Bsep were 59 and 62 microM, respectively, which were similar to those determined in CMVs from EHBR (68 and 33 microM, respectively). By co-expressing Mrp2 with Bsep in Sf9 cells, IC(50) values for membrane vesicles from these cells shifted to values comparable with those in CMVs from SD rats (4.6 and 1.2 microM). Moreover, in membrane vesicles where both Mrp2 and Bsep are co-expressed, preincubation with the sulfated bile acids potentiated their inhibitory effect on Bsep-mediated TC transport. These results can be accounted for by assuming that the sulfated bile acids trans-inhibit the Bsep-mediated transport of TC.  (+info)

(8/145) Increased production of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the absence of hyperlipidemia in transgenic mice expressing cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase.

The finding that expression of a cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transgene in cultured rat hepatoma cells caused a coordinate increase in lipogenesis and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins led to the hypothesis that hepatic production of apoB-containing lipoproteins may be linked to the expression of CYP7A1 (Wang, S.-L., Du, E., Martin, T. D., and Davis, R. A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 19351-19358). To examine this hypothesis in vivo, a transgene encoding CYP7A1 driven by the constitutive liver-specific enhancer of the human apoE gene was expressed in C56BL/6 mice. The expression of CYP7A1 mRNA (20-fold), protein ( approximately 10-fold), and enzyme activity (5-fold) was markedly increased in transgenic mice compared with non-transgenic littermates. The bile acid pool of CYP7A1 transgenic mice was doubled mainly due to increased hydrophobic dihydroxy bile acids. In CYP7A1 transgenic mice, livers contained approximately 3-fold more sterol response element-binding protein-2 mRNA. Hepatic expression of mRNAs encoding lipogenic enzymes (i.e. fatty-acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, squalene synthase, farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low density lipoprotein receptor) as well as microsomal triglyceride transfer protein were elevated approximately 3-5-fold in transgenic mice. CYP7A1 transgenic mice also displayed a >2-fold increase in hepatic production and secretion of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins. Despite the increased hepatic secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins in CYP7A1 mice, plasma levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were not significantly increased. These data suggest that the 5-fold increased expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor displayed by the livers of CYP7A1 transgenic mice was sufficient to compensate for the 2-fold increase production of apoB-containing lipoproteins. These findings emphasize the important homeostatic role that CYP7A1 plays in balancing the anabolic lipoprotein assembly/secretion pathway with the cholesterol catabolic bile acid synthetic pathway.  (+info)