Bidi use among urban youth--Massachusetts, March-April 1999.
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Bidis are small, brown, hand-rolled cigarettes primarily made in India and other southeast Asian countries consisting of tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf (Diospyros melanoxylon ). In the United States, bidis are purchased for $1.50-$4.00 for one package of 20 and are available in different flavors (e.g., cherry, chocolate, and mango). Anecdotal reports indicate that bidi use was first observed during the mid-1990s and seems to be widespread among youth and racial/ethnic minority adolescents. This report summarizes preliminary data collected from a convenience sample of adolescents surveyed during March and early April 1999 in Massachusetts on the prevalence of bidi use among urban youth; these data indicate that of 642 youth surveyed, 40% had smoked bidis at least once during their lifetimes and 16% were current bidi smokers. (+info)
Atopic dermatitis: a review of diagnosis and treatment.
Atopic dermatitis is a common, potentially debilitating condition that can compromise quality of life. Its most frequent symptom is pruritus. Attempts to relieve the itch by scratching simply worsen the rash, creating a vicious circle. Treatment should be directed at limiting itching, repairing the skin and decreasing inflammation when necessary. Lubricants, antihistamines and topical corticosteroids are the mainstays of therapy. When required, oral corticosteroids can be used. If pruritus does not respond to treatment, other diagnoses, such as bacterial overgrowth or viral infections, should be considered. Treatment options are available for refractory atopic dermatitis, but these measures should be reserved for use in unique situations and typically require consultation with a dermatologist or an allergist. (+info)
Doses of nicotine and lung carcinogens delivered to cigarette smokers.
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke yields of tar and nicotine obtained under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)-specified machine-smoking protocol (35-mL puff volume drawn for 2 seconds once per minute) may not accurately reflect the delivery of toxins and carcinogens to the smoker. We conducted this study to obtain more realistic estimates of exposure to components of cigarette smoke that affect lung cancer risk. METHODS: We used a pressure transducer system to evaluate puffing characteristics for 133 smokers of cigarettes rated by the FTC at 1.2 mg of nicotine or less (56 smokers of low-yield cigarettes [+info)
Yields and daily consumption of cigarettes in Japan in 1969-1996.
Cigarette modification trends and the relationship between nicotine yields and consumption in Japan were examined over the 27 years between 1969-1996. Data on cigarette use were obtained from reports published by the government and tobacco manufacturers. Over the study period, there has been a coherent pattern of cigarette modification in Japan. The sales-weighted average yields have declined from 20.7 mg tar and 1.64 mg nicotine/cigarette in 1969 to 8.7 mg tar and 0.72 mg nicotine/cigarette in 1996. On the other hand, the average daily consumption per smoker has continuously increased over the same period. Average nicotine yields and daily cigarette consumption have significant negative correlations among both males and females. This relationship was observed even after controlling for the price changes of cigarettes over time. It is indicated that smokers have compensated for reduced nicotine yields by increasing daily consumption. This may have offset potential benefits of the continuous decline in tar and nicotine yields to smokers' health. (+info)
Malignant transformation of mouse cells by cigarette smoke condensate.
A low-nicotine cigarette smoke condensate, 12 fractions of the condensate, and a reconstituted sample were tested for their ability to induce transformation in the mouse cell line 3H/10T-1/2 CL-8. This cell line is noted for its remarkable low spontaneous rate of transformation. Both the crude condensate and the reconstituted sample as well as two specific fractions induced transformation in the mouse cells. These transformed cells produced fibrosarcomas when injected s.c. into antithymocyte serum-treated syngeneic mice. (+info)
Exposure to cigarette tar inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and blocks lymphocyte proliferation.
Cigarette smoking causes profound suppression of pulmonary T cell responses, which has been associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections and decreased tumor surveillance. Exposure of human T cells to cigarette tar or its major phenolic components, hydroquinone and catechol, causes an immediate cessation of DNA synthesis without cytotoxicity. However, little is known of the mechanisms by which this phenomenon occurs. In this report we demonstrate that hydroquinone and catechol inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by quenching the essential tyrosyl radical in the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. (+info)
Declining lung cancer mortality of young Australian women despite increased smoking is linked to reduced cigarette 'tar' yields.
Lung cancer data were examined to determine whether the mortality rates of young Australian women have continued to increase in line with the proportions of them who have smoked tobacco. Trends in annual age-specific lung cancer mortality were estimated for 1965-1998. Age-specific mortality rates and age-adjusted ratios of mortality rates were calculated for birth cohorts. Proportions of smokers in those cohorts were estimated from results of eight national surveys of smoking, and their mean ages of commencement and years of smoking were assessed from surveys of smokers in two states. Lung cancer mortality rates of 20-44-year-old Australian women peaked in 1986. Age-adjusted mortality rates are lower for women born in the 1950s and 1960s than for women born in the 1940s, despite higher proportions of smokers, younger age of commencement and longer duration of smoking by age 30 years in the more recent cohorts. Increased smoking has not resulted in higher lung cancer mortality for Australian women born in the 1950s and 1960s. Reductions in tar yields of Australian-made cigarettes, which would have affected primarily those born after the 1940s, may be responsible. (+info)
Stress induction of Bm1 RNA in silkworm larvae: SINEs, an unusual class of stress genes.
This study surveys the induction of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-directed expression of short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts by various stresses in an animal model, silkworm larvae. Sublethal heat shock and exposure to several toxic compounds increase the level of Bm1 RNA, the silkworm SINE transcript, while also transiently increasing expression of a well-characterized stress-induced transcript, Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA). In certain cases, the Bm1 RNA response coincides with that of Hsp70 mRNA, but more often Bm1 RNA responds later in recovery. Baculovirus infection and exposure to certain toxic compounds increase Bm1 RNA but not Hsp70 mRNA, showing that SINE induction is not necessarily coupled to transcription of this particular heat shock gene. SINEs behave as an additional class of stress-inducible genes in living animals but are unusual as stress genes because of their high copy number, genomic dispersion, and Pol III-directed transcription. (+info)