Targeted comparative proteomics by liquid chromatography-tandem Fourier ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.
In proteomics, effective methods are needed for identifying the relatively limited subset of proteins displaying significant changes in abundance between two samples. One way to accomplish this task is to target for identification by MS/MS only the "interesting" proteins based on the abundance ratio of isotopically labeled pairs of peptides. We have developed the software and hardware tools for online LC-FTICR MS/MS studies in which a set of initially unidentified peptides from a proteome analysis can be selected for identification based on their distinctive changes in abundance following a "perturbation". We report here the validation of this method using a mixture of standard proteins combined in different ratios after isotopic labeling. We also demonstrate the application of this method to the identification of Shewanella oneidensis peptides/proteins exhibiting differential abundance in suboxic versus aerobic cell cultures. (+info)
The identification of 3,4-MDMA from its mass equivalent isomers and isobaric substances using fast LC-ESI-MS-MS.
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (3,4-MDMA, "Ecstacy") and its 17 isomers and isobaric substances are studied using liquid chromatography (LC)-positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MS). 3,4-MDMA is a controlled substance, whereas in many countries the other studied isobaric compounds are not. A method for confirmation of the presence of 3,4-MDMA in drug seizures is developed and validated. Using single MS, the compounds produce an intense protonated molecule and some characteristic fragments; but tandem MS (MS-MS) is applied to enhance specificity. The MS-MS fragmentation is studied in order to distinguish 3,4-MDMA from the other 17 related compounds. However, the MS-MS spectra of 3,4-MDMA and six related compounds are very similar. Therefore, the LC-MS-MS method is developed for the unambiguous identification of 3,4-MDMA. The use of a monolithic column allows for 5-min gradient runs. This qualitative method is tested with 49 Ecstacy samples seized by the police. All results are congruent with the ones obtained with other methods. (+info)
Parallel ion parking: improving conversion of parents to first-generation products in electron transfer dissociation.
Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) in a tandem mass spectrometer is an analytically useful ion/ion reaction technique for deriving polypeptide sequence information, but its utility can be limited by sequential reactions of the products. Sequential reactions lead to neutralization of some products, as well as to signals from products derived from multiple cleavages that can be difficult to interpret. A method of inhibiting sequential ETD fragmentation in a quadrupole ion trap is demonstrated here for the reaction of a triply protonated peptide with nitrobenzene anions. A tailored waveform (in this case, a filtered noise field) is applied during the ion/ion reaction time to accelerate simultaneously first-generation product ions and thereby inhibit their further reaction. This results in a approximately 50% gain in the relative yield of first-generation products and allows for the conversion of more than 90% of the original parent ions into first-generation products. Gains are expected to be even larger when higher charge-state cations are used, as the rates of sequential reaction become closer to the initial reaction rate. (+info)
Some structural properties of plant serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase?
The structural properties of photorespiratory serine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (SGAT, EC 188.8.131.52) from maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves were examined. By means of molecular sieving on Zorbax SE-250 column and filtration through centrifugal filters it was shown that dimers of wheat enzyme (molecular mass of about 90 kDa) dissociate into component monomers (molecular mass of about 45 kDa) upon decrease in pH value (from 9.1 or 7.0 to 6.5). At pH 9.1 a 50-fold decrease of ionic strength elicited a similar effect. Under the same conditions homodimers of the maize enzyme (molecular mass similar to that of the wheat enzyme) remained stable. Immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antiserum against wheat seedling SGAT on leaf homogenates or highly purified preparations of both enzymes showed that the immunogenic portions of the wheat enzyme are divergent from those of the maize enzyme. The sequence of 136 amino acids of the maize enzyme and 78 amino acids of the wheat enzyme was established by tandem mass spectrometry with time of flight analyzer. The two enzymes likely share similarity in tertiary and quaternary structures as well as high level of hydrophobicity on their molecular surfaces. They likely differ in the mechanism of transport from the site of biosynthesis to peroxisomes as well as in some aspects of secondary structure. (+info)
Two-dimensional gas-phase separations coupled to mass spectrometry for analysis of complex mixtures.
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been explored for decades, and its versatility in separation and identification of gas-phase ions is well established. Recently, field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS) has been gaining acceptance in similar applications. Coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), both IMS and FAIMS have shown the potential for broad utility in proteomics and other biological analyses. A major attraction of these separations is extremely high speed, exceeding that of condensed-phase alternatives by orders of magnitude. However, modest separation peak capacities have limited the utility of FAIMS and IMS for analyses of complex mixtures. We report 2-D gas-phase separations that join FAIMS to IMS, in conjunction with high-resolution and accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) MS. Implementation of FAIMS/IMS and IMS/MS interfaces using electrodynamic ion funnels greatly improves sensitivity. Evaluation of FAIMS/IMS/TOF performance for a protein mixture tryptic digest reveals high orthogonality between FAIMS and IMS dimensions and, hence, the benefit of FAIMS filtering prior to IMS/MS. The effective peak capacities in analyses of tryptic peptides are approximately 500 for FAIMS/IMS separations and approximately 10(6) for 3-D FAIMS/IMS/MS, providing a potential platform for ultrahigh-throughput analyses of complex mixtures. (+info)
Newborn screening of inherited metabolic diseases by tandem mass spectrometry.
Application of TMS technology in newborn screening has resulted in major expansion of disorder panel for metabolic diseases in recent years. This automated, multiplex testing methodology detects multiple analytes from single analysis of one blood spot, which leads to detection of 30-35 disorders of amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids metabolism. The early identification of persons affected with inborn errors of metabolism has led to unexpected discoveries related to the natural history of the disorder or options for therapy. This article summarized (1) the basic principles of this technology and methodology. (2) Current status of application of this methodology in the United States, European countries and in China. (3) The positive impacts on the public health and advances in medical genetics. Finally (4) Challenges, issues and possible solutions. The purpose of this article aimed at introducing new technology and exploring the possibilities of implementing into developing countries where medical genetics is not developed and foreseeing the possible problems and obstacles. (+info)
Peptide-phospholipid cross-linking reactions: identification of leucine enkephalin-alka(e)nal-glycerophosphatidylcholine adducts by tandem mass spectrometry.
The covalent interactions between peptides and lipid oxidation products, with formation of Schiff and Michael adducts, are known to occur during free radical oxidative damage. In this study, leucine-enkephalin-glycerophosphatidylcholine alka(e)nal adducts were analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Upon collision-induced dissociation of the Leucine enkephalin-2-(9-oxo-nonanoyl)-1-palmitoyl-3-glycerophosphatidylcholine, an alkanal Schiff adduct observed at m/z 1187.7, the main product ions were attributed to the phosphocholine polar head and loss of the peptide. Also, product ions resulting from characteristic losses of phosphatidylcholines and cleavages of the peptide chain (mainly b-type) were observed. Additional product ions formed by combined peptide and phosphatidylcholine fragmentations were identified. The fragmentation pattern of the leucine enkephalin-alkanal Schiff adduct and the leucine enkephalin-alkenal phosphatidylcholine Schiff and Michael adducts were similar, although the loss of the peptide for the Michael adduct should occur through a distinct mechanism. These fragmentation pathways differ greatly from those described for peptide-lipid Schiff and Michael adducts, in which only peptide chain cleavages are reported, probably due to charge retention in the glycerophosphatidylcholine polar head in peptide-glycerophosphatidylcholine adducts. (+info)
Cytoskeletal components of an invasion machine--the apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii.
The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii is widely believed to serve essential functions in both invasion of its host cells (including human cells), and in replication of the parasite. The understanding of apical complex function, the basis for its novel structure, and the mechanism for its motility are greatly impeded by lack of knowledge of its molecular composition. We have partially purified the conoid/apical complex, identified approximately 200 proteins that represent 70% of its cytoskeletal protein components, characterized seven novel proteins, and determined the sequence of recruitment of five of these proteins into the cytoskeleton during cell division. Our results provide new markers for the different subcompartments within the apical complex, and revealed previously unknown cellular compartments, which facilitate our understanding of how the invasion machinery is built. Surprisingly, the extreme apical and extreme basal structures of this highly polarized cell originate in the same location and at the same time very early during parasite replication. (+info)