Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula.
Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula. (+info)
Intimal tear without hematoma: an important variant of aortic dissection that can elude current imaging techniques.
BACKGROUND: The modern imaging techniques of transesophageal echocardiography, CT, and MRI are reported to have up to 100% sensitivity in detecting the classic class of aortic dissection; however, anecdotal reports of patient deaths from a missed diagnosis of subtle classes of variants are increasingly being noted. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a series of 181 consecutive patients who had ascending or aortic arch repairs, 9 patients (5%) had subtle aortic dissection not diagnosed preoperatively. All preoperative studies in patients with missed aortic dissection were reviewed in detail. All 9 patients (2 with Marfan syndrome, 1 with Takayasu's disease) with undiagnosed aortic dissection had undergone >/=3 imaging techniques, with the finding of ascending aortic dilatation (4.7 to 9 cm) in all 9 and significant aortic valve regurgitation in 7. In 6 patients, an eccentric ascending aortic bulge was present but not diagnostic of aortic dissection on aortography. At operation, aortic dissection tears were limited in extent and involved the intima without extensive undermining of the intima or an intimal "flap." Eight had composite valve grafts inserted, and all survived. Of the larger series of 181 patients, 98% (179 of 181) were 30-day survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected aortic dissection not proven by modern noninvasive imaging techniques, further study should be performed, including multiple views of the ascending aorta by aortography. If patients have an ascending aneurysm, particularly if eccentric on aortography and associated with aortic valve regurgitation, an urgent surgical repair should be considered, with excellent results expected. (+info)
Interleukin-6 and RANTES in Takayasu arteritis: a guide for therapeutic decisions?
BACKGROUND: In patients with Takayasu arteritis, circulating lymphocytes are activated, and histological findings indicate that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in the pathogenetic sequence leading to vascular lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: To delineate the profile of inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines involved in T-cell activation in Takayasu arteritis, we measured by ELISA serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, and RANTES in 18 patients. Subsequently, we wanted to establish whether any of these molecules could be used as a marker to monitor the clinical course of the disease and to predict disease exacerbations. We found that all patients with Takayasu arteritis studied during an active phase of the disease have increased serum concentration of IL-6 compared with healthy control subjects (P<0.01). Enhanced IL-6 serum levels paralleled disease activity to the extent that its serum concentrations were comparable to those of control subjects when patients were studied in remission. RANTES concentrations were also higher than normal in the serum of all patients with Takayasu arteritis (P<0.01) studied during an active phase of the disease. RANTES serum levels tended to normalize in remission, but values remained higher than those of control subjects (P<0.05). In contrast, serum concentrations of IL-1beta were below the detection limit of ELISA in both healthy subjects and all patients with Takayasu arteritis. A positive correlation was found between either IL-6 (rho=0.705, P<0.01) or RANTES (rho=0.607, P<0.05) serum level and disease activity. CONCLUSIONS: The close correlation of serum IL-6 and RANTES levels with disease activity suggests that these cytokines contribute to vasculitic lesions in Takayasu arteritis and raises the possibility that their monitoring in serum helps clinicians find adequate treatment adjustments in individual patients. (+info)
Monoclonal anti-endothelial cell antibodies from a patient with Takayasu arteritis activate endothelial cells from large vessels.
OBJECTIVE: To create monoclonal anti-endothelial cell antibodies (mAECA) from a patient with Takayasu arteritis to evaluate their ability to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to characterize the mechanism of EC activation. METHODS: A panel of mAECA was generated from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient with Takayasu arteritis, using Epstein-Barr virus transformation. Activity against macrovascular EC (HUVEC) and microvascular EC (human bone marrow EC immortalized by SV40) antigens was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Inhibition studies were used to select the monoclonal antibodies (mAECA) which share the same EC epitope binding specificity as the total IgG-AECA from the Takayasu arteritis patient. The binding of the mAECA to human aortic EC was studied by immunohistochemistry. The secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were determined, to serve as markers for EC activation. The activated EC were examined for the adherence of a monocytic cell line (U937), as well as for expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin. In addition, nuclear extracts of the mAECA-treated EC were analyzed for the induction of translocation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), using a specific NF-kappaB oligoprobe in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: Six mAECA were selected, the mixture of which produced 100% inhibition of binding of the original IgG (from the patient with Takayasu arteritis) to HUVEC. All mAECA possessed high activity against macrovascular EC, but none had significant antimicrovascular EC activity. The mAECA, but not normal human IgG, had anti-human aortic EC activity. Four of the 6 mAECA activated EC, manifested by increased IL-6 and vWF secretion. The 4 mAECA induced EC expression of adhesion molecules and increased adhesion of U937 monocytic cells to EC. In addition, these mAECA stimulated the nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that AECA may directly stimulate EC in Takayasu arteritis through elevation of adhesion molecule expression associated with NF-kappaB activation and adhesion of monocytes, and may therefore play a pathogenic role in the development of the vasculopathy in Takayasu arteritis. (+info)
Cryopreserved aortic homograft replacement in a patient with Takayasu's arteritis.
A patient with severe long-standing Takayasu's arteritis underwent successful replacement of the aortic root and ascending aorta with a cryopreserved aortic homograft. Her postoperative course was uneventful and echocardiography demonstrated evidence of neither aortic regurgitation nor graft detachment more than 2 years after the operation. Magnetic resonance image demonstrated no signs of graft enlargement. (+info)
The acute diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis based on helical CT angiography of the chest and neck in the emergency room.
Recently, a young woman presented acutely with a left hemispheric stroke and differing blood pressures in the arms as her initial manifestation of Takayasu's arteritis. Helical CT angiography, performed to rule out aortic dissection, revealed a thickened wall of the aortic arch with stenoses and occlusions of the great vessels, suggesting the diagnosis. The sequence of imaging studies and findings in this unusually catastrophic presentation of a typically insidious disease are highlighted. (+info)
Presence of antinucleosome autoantibodies in a restricted set of connective tissue diseases: antinucleosome antibodies of the IgG3 subclass are markers of renal pathogenicity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and disease specificity of antinucleosome antibody reactivity in diverse connective tissue diseases (CTD), and to determine factors, such as antibody subclass, that may influence the pathogenicity of these antibodies in relation to disease activity. METHODS: IgG and IgM antinucleosome activities on nucleosome core particles from 496 patients with 13 different CTD and 100 patients with hepatitis C were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the patients with CTD, 120 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 37 had scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc), 20 had mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and 319 had other CTD, including Sjogren's syndrome, inflammatory myopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, relapsing polychondritis, Behcet's syndrome, and sarcoidosis. Antinucleosome-positive sera were further analyzed, by isotype-specific ELISA, for antinucleosome and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) IgG subclasses. RESULTS: SLE, SSc, and MCTD were the only 3 CTD in which antinucleosome IgG were detected (71.7%, 45.9%, and 45.0% of patients, respectively). Antinucleosomes of the IgG3 subclass were present at high levels in patients with active SLE and were virtually absent in those with SSc, MCTD, or inactive SLE, and their levels showed a positive correlation with SLE disease activity. Of note, an increase in levels of antinucleosome of the IgG3 isotype was observed during SLE flares, and this increase was found to be closely associated with active nephritis. Levels of antinucleosome of the IgG1 subclass showed a trend toward an inverse correlation with SLE disease activity. No significant fluctuation in the anti-dsDNA isotype profile was observed in relation to SLE severity or clinical signs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that IgG antinucleosome is a new marker that may help in the differential diagnosis of CTD; antinucleosome of the IgG3 isotype might constitute a selective biologic marker of active SLE, in particular, of lupus nephritis. (+info)
Takayasu's arteritis in a 69 year-old woman.
Takayasu's arteritis and temporal arteritis share many clinical and pathological features. The most discriminatory feature between the two diseases is the age at onset; the mean age at onset of the disease was reported as being 26 years for Takayasu's arteritis and 69 years for temporal arteritis. Here we report a 69-year-old woman who presented with a weak right radial artery pulse. The ethnic background and the presence of vascular insufficiency of the right upper extremity and the absence of clinical signs such as shoulder stiffness and tender scalp indicate that her diagnosis is Takayasu's arteritis. It must be emphasized that the two conditions could be differentiated based on the clinical findings even in a patient as old as 69 years old. (+info)