Alternative polyadenylation events contribute to the induction of NF-ATc in effector T cells.
The transcription factor NF-ATc is synthesized in three prominent isoforms. These differ in the length of their C terminal peptides and mode of synthesis. Due to a switch from the use of a 3' polyA site to a more proximal polyA site, NF-ATc expression switches from the synthesis of the two longer isoforms in naive T cells to that of short isoform A in T effector cells. The relative low binding affinity of cleavage stimulation factor CstF-64 to the proximal polyA site seems to contribute to its neglect in naive T cells. These alternative polyadenylation events ensure the rapid accumulation of high concentrations of NF-ATc necessary to exceed critical threshold levels of NF-ATc for gene induction in effector T cells. (+info)
Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.
We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (+info)
Inflammatory cytokines provide a third signal for activation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
The effects of inflammatory cytokines on naive T cells have been studied using MHC protein/peptide complexes on microspheres, thus avoiding the use of APCs whose functions may be affected by the cytokines. IL-1, but not IL-12, increased proliferation of CD4+ T cells in response to Ag and IL-2, which is consistent with effects on in vivo priming of CD4+ cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD8+ T cells to Ag and IL-2 required IL-12, and IL-12 replaced adjuvant in stimulating an in vivo response to peptide. These results support a model in which distinct inflammatory cytokines act directly on naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to provide a third signal, along with Ag and IL-2, to optimally activate differentiation and clonal expansion. (+info)
Thymus and autoimmunity: production of CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells as a key function of the thymus in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.
This study shows that the normal thymus produces immunoregulatory CD25+4+8- thymocytes capable of controlling self-reactive T cells. Transfer of thymocyte suspensions depleted of CD25+4+8- thymocytes, which constitute approximately 5% of steroid-resistant mature CD4+8- thymocytes in normal naive mice, produces various autoimmune diseases in syngeneic athymic nude mice. These CD25+4+8- thymocytes are nonproliferative (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro, but potently suppress the proliferation of other CD4+8- or CD4-8+ thymocytes; breakage of their anergic state in vitro by high doses of IL-2 or anti-CD28 Ab simultaneously abrogates their suppressive activity; and transfer of such suppression-abrogated thymocyte suspensions produces autoimmune disease in nude mice. These immunoregulatory CD25+4+8- thymocytes/T cells are functionally distinct from activated CD25+4+ T cells derived from CD25-4+ thymocytes/T cells in that the latter scarcely exhibits suppressive activity in vitro, although both CD25+4+ populations express a similar profile of cell surface markers. Furthermore, the CD25+4+8- thymocytes appear to acquire their anergic and suppressive property through the thymic selection process, since TCR transgenic mice develop similar anergic/suppressive CD25+4+8- thymocytes and CD25+4+ T cells that predominantly express TCRs utilizing endogenous alpha-chains, but RAG-2-deficient TCR transgenic mice do not. These results taken together indicate that anergic/suppressive CD25+4+8- thymocytes and peripheral T cells in normal naive mice may constitute a common T cell lineage functionally and developmentally distinct from other T cells, and that production of this unique immunoregulatory T cell population can be another key function of the thymus in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. (+info)
Decreased IL-12 production underlies the decreased ability of male lymph node cells to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes from male SJL mice were shown to be less encephalitogenic than MBP-specific T lymphocytes from females. Mechanisms underlying this gender difference in the induction phase of EAE were examined. Following immunization with MBP, draining lymph nodes contained fewer cells, and Ag-specific proliferative responses were decreased in males as compared with females. These gender differences in the proliferative response were not unique to MBP-specific responses since they were also observed after immunization with hen eggwhite lysozyme. Short-term MBP-specific T cell lines derived from females and males mapped with identical specificity, indicating no defect in the ability of male APCs to process Ag. Interestingly, IL-12 and IFN-gamma production was decreased following Ag-specific stimulation of draining lymph node cells (LNC) from males as compared with females, but IL-10 and IL-4 were no different. While male-derived LNCs were less encephalitogenic than female derived LNCs, cotransfer and coculture of male LNCs with female LNCs demonstrated that male LNCs were not immunosuppressive. Administration of IL-12 to LNCs from male mice enhanced encephalitogenicity. These data indicate that deficient endogenous IL-12 production within draining LNCs of male SJL mice is central to gender differences in the induction phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (+info)
Emergence of regulatory CD4+ T cell response to repetitive stimulation with antigen-presenting cells in vitro: implications in designing antigen-presenting cell-based tumor vaccines.
Because APCs play a crucial role in the generation of T cell-mediated immune responses, numerous clinical trials with APC-based vaccines have been initiated in different types of human cancers. Encouraging results have emerged from some of these initial studies. Thus far, APC-based vaccinations usually include multiple rounds of immunization. With this approach, although we and others have detected induction of Ag-specific CTL responses in vaccinated patients after stimulation with the same APC-based immunogen, in vitro we also find that repetitive in vitro stimulation with Ag-loaded APC can, at times, lead to the emergence of noncytolytic CD4+ T cells exhibiting the characteristic phenotype of Th2 cells. These noncytolytic CD4+ T cells synthesize large quantities of type 2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10 on stimulation with the autologous APC or tumor cells in an MHC class II-restricted manner. Further, these CD4+ T cells and a cell-free supernatant factor block the activation of fresh T lymphocytes. The supernatant factor also exhibits a marked inhibitory effect on the expression of the costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86, by APC. The inhibitory effect of the supernatant factor can be abrogated by neutralizing IL-10 in the supernatant. These observations therefore have implications in the APC-based tumor vaccine protocol design. (+info)
Regulation of apoptosis in mature alphabeta+CD4-CD8- antigen-specific suppressor T cell clones.
The regulation of apoptosis in mature CD4+ or CD8+ alphabeta+ T cells has been well studied. How the survival and death is regulated in peripheral CD4-CD8- (double negative, DN) alphabeta+ T cells remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that peripheral DN T cells may play an important role in the regulation of the immune responses mediated by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Here, we used immunosuppressive DN T cell clones to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of death and survival of alphabeta+ DN T cells. The DN T cell clones were generated from the spleen cells of 2C transgenic mice, which express the transgenic TCR specific for Ld and permanently accepted Ld+ skin allografts after pretransplant infusion of Ld+ lymphocytes. We report that 1) the mature DN T cells are highly resistant to TCR cross-linking-induced apoptosis in the presence of exogenous IL-4; 2) Fas/Fas-ligand and TNF-alpha/TNFR pathways do not play an apparent role in regulating apoptosis in DN T cells; 3) the DN T cells constitutively express a high level of Bcl-xL, but not Bcl-2; 4) both Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 are up-regulated following TCR-cross-linking; and 5) IL-4 stimulation significantly up-regulates Bcl-xL and c-Jun expression and leads to mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in DN T cells, which may contribute to the resistance to apoptosis in these T cells. Taken together, these results provide us with an insight into how mature DN T cells resist activation-induced apoptosis to provide a long-term suppressor function in vivo. (+info)
Regulation of the mucosal immune response.
Infectious diseases continue to exact an extensive toll on populations living closest to the equatorial regions of the globe. A substantial proportion of these infections gain access to the host via the mucosal tissues. Thus, the development of new vaccines that enhance mucosal immunity is considered to be of paramount importance in order to prevent or limit the impact of these infections. Mucosal immune responses must discriminate between commensal flora within the lumen and potential pathogens. These responses are highly adapted to induce protection without excessive amounts of inflammation. The balances that regulate mucosal immune and inflammatory responses have to be understood if effective mucosal immunity is to be induced through local immunization. This review will summarize some of the unique properties of mucosal immune responses and focus on recent advances that have significantly influenced our understanding of the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses following infection. (+info)