Trichothecene mycotoxins trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces apoptosis.
The trichothecene family of mycotoxins inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomal peptidyltransferase site. Inhibitors of the peptidyltransferase reaction (e.g. anisomycin) can trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, components of a signaling cascade that regulates cell survival in response to stress. We have found that selected trichothecenes strongly activate JNK/p38 kinases and induce rapid apoptosis in Jurkat T cells. Although the ability of individual trichothecenes to inhibit protein synthesis and activate JNK/p38 kinases are dissociable, both effects contribute to the induction of apoptosis. Among trichothecenes that strongly activate JNK/p38 kinases, induction of apoptosis increases linearly with inhibition of protein synthesis. Among trichothecenes that strongly inhibit protein synthesis, induction of apoptosis increases linearly with activation of JNK/p38 kinases. Trichothecenes that inhibit protein synthesis without activating JNK/p38 kinases inhibit the function (i.e. activation of JNK/p38 kinases and induction of apoptosis) of apoptotic trichothecenes and anisomycin. Harringtonine, a structurally unrelated protein synthesis inhibitor that competes with trichothecenes (and anisomycin) for ribosome binding, also inhibits the activation of JNK/p38 kinases and induction of apoptosis by trichothecenes and anisomycin. Taken together, these results implicate the peptidyltransferase site as a regulator of both JNK/p38 kinase activation and apoptosis. (+info)
Thymocyte apoptosis by T-2 toxin in vivo in mice is independent of Fas/Fas ligand system.
To find whether Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway is involved in T-2 toxin (T-2)-mediated thymocyte apoptosis, we used lpr/lpr (lpr) and gld/gld (gld) mice, whose Fas and FasL proteins, respectively, are functionally deficient. Based on the DNA fragmentation profile in gel electrophoresis and measurement of apoptotic cell percent by flow cytometry, the levels of thymocyte apoptosis in lpr and gld mice that had received T-2 showed that both lpr and gld mice had undergone apoptosis essentially to the same magnitude as those of corresponding wild type mice (+/+). These results strongly suggest that T-2-induced thymocyte apoptosis in vivo in mice is independent of the Fas/FasL pathway. (+info)
The effect of T-2 toxin on IL-1beta and IL-6 secretion in human fetal chondrocytes.
The effects of T-2 toxin on IL-1beta and IL-6 secretion in human fetal chondrocytes in vitro were investigated. The evaluation is realised on primary monolayer culture of human fetal epiphyseal chondrocytes with or without PMA stimulation. The levels of supernatant IL-1beta and IL-6 were analyzed by ELISA. As compared with their respective controls, we observed a significant increase of IL-Ibeta and IL-6 in supernatants of chondrocytes cultivated for 24 h with T-2 at 8 ng/ml after PMA stimulation; in the absence of PMA, IL-Ibeta was increased alone after 48 h. The results demonstrated that T-2 toxin could superinduce IL-1beta and IL-6 secretion in chondrocytes. All these data suggested that superinduction of cytokines might be one of the key mechanisms of chondrocyte injuries by T-2 toxin. (+info)
Apoptosis induction by T-2 toxin: activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic release of cytochrome c in HL-60 cells.
The molecules participating in apoptosis induced by T-2 toxin in human leukemia HL-60 cells were investigated. The rank order of the potency of trichothecene mycotoxins to induce internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was found to be T-2, satratoxin G, roridin A >> diacetoxyscirpenol > baccharin B-5 >> nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, baccharin B-4=vehicle control. Western blot analysis of caspase-3 in T-2-treated cells clearly indicated the appearance of its catalytically active fragment of 17-kDa. Increased caspase-3 activity was also detected by using a fluorogenic substrate, DEVD-AMC. Next, cells exposed to T-2 led to cleavage of PARP from its native 116-kDa form to the 85-kDa product. Moreover, DFF-45/ICAD were cleaved to give a 12.5-kDa fragment via T-2 treatment. T-2 caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. Increased enzymic activity of caspase-9 on LEHD-AMC was shown. These data indicate that T-2-induced apoptosis involves activation of caspase-3 and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c along with caspase-9 activation. (+info)
Tri16 is required for esterification of position C-8 during trichothecene mycotoxin production by Fusarium sporotrichioides.
We previously characterized Tri1, a gene required for hydroxylation of the C-8 position during trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides NRRL 3299. Sequence analysis of the region surrounding Tri1 revealed a gene, named Tri16, which could encode an acyltransferase. Unlike the wild-type parent strain NRRL 3299, which accumulates primarily T-2 toxin along with low levels of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and neosolaniol (NEO) and trace amounts of 8-propionyl-neosolaniol (P-NEO) and 8-isobutyryl-neosolaniol (B-NEO), mutants containing a disruption of Tri16 were blocked in the production of the three C-8 esterified compounds T-2 toxin, P-NEO, and B-NEO and accumulated the C-8-hydroxylated compound NEO along with secondary levels of DAS. These data indicate that Tri16 encodes an acyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of ester side groups at C-8 during trichothecene biosynthesis. We also report the presence of a Tri16 ortholog in Gibberella pulicaris R-6380 that is likely linked to a presumably inactive ortholog for Tri1. (+info)
A practical method for measuring deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 + HT-2 toxin in foods by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies.
We have developed and tested an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for individual measurement of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 + HT-2 toxin using monoclonal antibodies for 3,4,15-triacetyl-nivalenol, for both 3,4,15-triacetyl-nivalenol and 3,15-diacetyl-deoxynivalenol, and for acetyl-T-2 toxin. The assay system comprised three kits (desinated the DON + NIV kit, the NIV kit, and the T-2 + HT-2 kit). The practical performance of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was assessed by assaying trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kernels. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system meets all the requirements for use in a routine assay in terms of sensitivity (detection limit: deoxynivalenol 80 ng/g, nivalenol 80 ng/g, T-2 toxin 30 ng/g), reproducibility (total coefficient of variation: 1.9-6.2%), accuracy (recovery: 93.8-112.0%), simplicity and rapidity (time required: <2 h), mass handling (>42 samples/assay), and a good correlation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (r=0.9146-0.9991). Components derived from the wheat extract did not interfere with the assay kits. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system is a useful alternative method to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorption for screening cereals and foods for trichothecene mycotoxin contamination. (+info)
4-acetoxyscirpendiol of Paecilomyces tenuipes inhibits Na(+)/D-glucose cotransporter expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Cordyceps, an entomopathogenic fungus, contains many health-promoting ingredients. Recent reports indicate that the consumption of cordyceps helps reduce blood-sugar content in diabetics. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction in circulatory sugar content is not fully understood. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes, and 4-beta acetoxyscirpendiol (4-ASD) was eventually isolated and purified. Na(+)/Glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the effect of 4-ASD on SGLT-1 was analyzed utilizing a voltage clamp and by performing 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake studies. 4-ASD was shown to significantly inhibit SGLT-1 activity compared to the non-treated control in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of the derivatives of 4-ASD (diacetoxyscirpenol or 15-acetoxyscirpendiol), SGLT-1 activity was greatly inhibited in an 4-ASD-like manner. Of these derivatives, 15-acetoxyscirepenol inhibited SGLT-1 as well as 4-ASD, whereas diacetoxyscirpenol was slightly less effective. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that 4-ASD in P. tenuipes may lower blood sugar levels in the circulatory system. We conclude that 4-ASD and its derivatives are effective SGLT-1 inhibitors. (+info)
Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin associated with stalk rot in corn.
The mycotoxins zearalenone (2.8 micrograms/g), deoxynivalenol (1.5 microgram/g), and T-2 toxin (110 ng/g) have been found in the pith of corn stalks standing in the field. Such contaminated stalks may contribute to mycotoxicoses of farm animals. (+info)