Focal (segmental) dyshidrosis in syringomyelia.
The features or mechanisms of dyshidrosis have not been sufficiently clarified. Neither has the difference between hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis. To clarify the features and mechanisms of dyshidrosis (hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis) in syringomyelia, the clinical features focusing on hidrosis of 30 patients with syringomyelia and Chiari malformation located from a syringomyelia database were prospectively analysed. The patients were classified into three groups: eight patients (26.7%) had segmental hypohidrosis, 10 (33. 3%) had segmental hyperhidrosis, and 12 (40.0%) had normohidrosis. We found that the Karnofsky functional status for the hyperhydrosis and normohidrosis groups were significantly higher than for the hypohidrosis group (p=0.0012), with no significant differences between the hyperhidrosis and normohidrosis groups. The duration from the onset of syringomyelia to the current dyshidrosis was significantly longer in the hypohidrosis group than in the hyperhidrosis group (p=0.0027). A significant correlation was identified between the duration from the onset of syringomyelia to the time at study and the performance score (r=-0.599, p=0.0003). The results substantiate previous hypotheses that in its early stage syringomyelia causes segmental hyperactivity of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons, and hyperactivity of these gradually subsides as tissue damage progresses. Focal hyperhidrosis may be regarded as a hallmark of a relatively intact spinal cord, as well as normohidrosis. (+info)
Arnold-Chiari malformation with syringomyelia in an elderly woman.
PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman, complaining of leg pain and unsteady gait for 3 years, presented with a spastic paraparetic gait, severe spasticity and touch, thermal and pain sensory loss limited to arms, lower thorax and upper abdomen. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging showed a large loculated syrinx. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation into the foramen magnum was also seen (Arnold-Chiari malformation, type I). OUTCOME: The patient had successful cervico-spinal surgical decompression which resulted in marked reduction in hypertonia and weakness, normal gait and normal joint movement at 6 months. CONCLUSION: This unusual, late clinical presentation of a congenital disease underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in the elderly patients with complex neurological signs. (+info)
Spinal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with repaired myelomeningocele: comparison of modalities.
The goals of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonography of the spine in the follow-up evaluation of patients with repaired myelomeningocele at birth and to compare sonography with the accepted modality of magnetic resonance imaging. Over a period of 4 years we performed 165 sonographic studies in 101 patients; 107 sonographic studies had MR imaging results for comparison. We collected our data prospectively. The quality of the sonograms was good in 110 of 129 studies, acceptable in 17 of 129, and poor in two of 129. The sonographic examinations failed in 33 of 165 studies (20%). Concordant information was obtained between ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the following percentage of studies: level of the distal end of the cord in 82%, position of the cord in the canal in 59%, presence of hydromyelia in 63%, cord duplication in 96%, adhesions in 16%, intradural mass in 37%, cord measurements in 85%, and dural sac measurements in 83%. At the lumbosacral level, we saw no cord pulsation in 57% of the studies in patients with cord adhesions and in 20% of those without adhesions. At the lower thoracic level, we saw no pulsation in 35% of the studies in patients with cord adhesions and in 7% of those without adhesions. Postoperative studies of cord release surgery in eight patients showed varied findings. We conclude that in those patients who have a spinal defect or interlaminar space allowing proper visualization of the lumbosacral spinal canal, ultrasound can provide fairly similar information to that obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of that area with no need for sedation and at a reduced cost. Ultrasonography seems more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of cord adhesions, which is particularly relevant in the diagnosis of tethering. (+info)
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in a rat model of syringomyelia after excitotoxic spinal cord injury.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent experimental data have shown that an increase of excitatory amino acids and the initiation of inflammatory responses within the injured spinal cord may play a role in post-traumatic syringomyelia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps could provide earlier evidence of spinal cord cavitation in a rat model of syringomyelia than available with conventional MR imaging. METHODS: The spinal cord gray matter of four rats was injected with the alpha-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid/metabotropic receptor agonist quisqualic acid. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4, or 8 weeks after injection, and the spinal cords were fixed in formalin for 1 week and imaged with T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted sequences. One control specimen was also imaged. ADC maps were constructed from the diffusion-weighted data. Histopathologic analyses of sections stained with cresyl violet were compared with the MR images. RESULTS: By 1 week after injection, ADC maps at the level of injection showed areas within the gray matter of increased intensity and increased ADC values as compared with the control specimen. These bright areas corresponded to cysts or cavities within the cord parenchyma on the histopathologic sections. The ADC values within affected gray matter areas progressively increased at 4 and 8 weeks, also corresponding to cyst formation. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images showed corresponding lesions with cystic characteristics at 4 and 8 weeks, but not at 1 week. CONCLUSION: In an animal model of syringomyelia, diffusion-weighted imaging with ADC maps detected cystic lesions within spinal cord gray matter before they were seen on conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. (+info)
Effect of cerebrospinal fluid shunting on experimental syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings.
The histological changes associated with syringomyelia after reduction of the syrinx size were investigated after cerebrospinal fluid shunting in experimental syringomyelia in the rabbit. Five weeks after syringomyelia was induced by the injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna in Japanese white rabbits, ventriculosubgaleal shunting or syringoepidural shunting were performed. After 1 week magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histological examination were then carried out. Five of 11 shunted animals showed postoperative reduction of syrinx size on MR imaging. Grossly, some specimens showed cavity collapse and parenchymal healing, and others showed a small residual syrinx in the dorsal horn. The most dramatic histological changes occurred in the gray matter. Specimens with syrinx collapse showed rarefaction and tearing of the gray matter, with mild glial reaction. The edematous gray matter showed both degeneration and regeneration, with neuronal processes surrounded by edema fluid. Reactive astrocytes were observed mainly at the margin of the residual syrinx. Some astrocytic processes invested the extraaxonal space and gray matter lacked supportive tissue. Greater reduction of the syrinx after shunting operation was correlated with more regeneration and less degeneration, and the white matter was edematous and histological changes were milder. Syrinx shrinkage occurred after shunting in this experimental model of syringomyelia. The selective vulnerability of gray matter even after shunting may explain discrepancies between imaging findings and clinical features in this disease. The study supports the potential benefit from early treatment, considering the associated morphological findings of regeneration. (+info)
Spinal dysraphism in a newborn Holstein-Friesian calf.
Spinal dysraphism, not associated with vertebral defect or arthrogryposis, was found in a 3-day-old Holstein-Friesian calf that was clinically diagnosed as having encephalopathy. The dysraphic lesion occurred in the sixth (C6) and seventh (C7) segments of the cervical spinal cord. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by hydromyelia, syringomyelia, anomaly of the ventral median fissure, abnormal running of the myelinated nerve fibers in the white column, and absence of the central canal due to a developmental defect of the ependymal cells. (+info)
Retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst with syringomyelia: a case report.
Association of syringomyelia with retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts is rare. A case of 14 year old female is being reported, who presented with hydrocephalus caused by a large midline retrocerebellar infravermal arachnoid cyst leading to obstruction of the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle. There was associated syringomyelia. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia is discussed. The need to evaluate cervical spinal cord by taking T1 weighted sagittal sections in all the patients of large posterior fossa mass lesions causing obstruction to the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle has been stressed, in order to detect associated syringomyelia. (+info)
Chiari malformation and syringomyelia in monozygotic twins: birth injury as a possible cause of syringomyelia--case report.
A 26-year-old female, the elder of monozygotic twins, presented with slow progressive numbness and pain in her left arm. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed syringomyelia with Chiari malformation. The patient's birth had been difficult with prolonged delivery time, breech delivery, and neonatal asphyxia. MR imaging of the patient's twin sister showed mild tonsillar ectopia, but absence of syringomyelia. This younger sister was born without problems. The patient underwent syringosubarachnoid shunt at the C5-6 level. The syrinx was collapsed promptly, and her symptoms disappeared. This case of syringomyelia with Chiari malformation in one of twins suggests that birth injury is likely to be a cause of the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. (+info)