Distribution of yttrium 90 ferric hydroxide colloid and gold 198 colloid after injection into knee.
Thirteen knees were injected with yttrium 90(90Y) ferric hydroxide colloid, and 12 with gold 198(198Au) colloid for treatment of persistent synovitis. Retention in the knee and uptake in lymph nodes and liver were measured by a quantitative scanning technique. There was no significant difference in the retention in the knee of the two different colloids. A tendency towards higher lymph node uptake was observed with 198Au compared with 90y. The inflammatory activity of the knee at the time of treatment may have influenced the subsequent lymph node uptake of 198Au, but not that of the 90Y, nor the overall leakage of either from the knee. 90Yferric hydroxide colloid was retained in the treated knee at least as well as other colloids which have been used for this purpose. (+info)
IL-16 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in rheumatoid synovitis.
T lymphocytes are a major component of the inflammatory infiltrate in rheumatoid synovitis, but their exact role in the disease process is not understood. Functional activities of synovial T cells were examined by adoptive transfer experiments in human synovium-SCID mouse chimeras. Adoptive transfer of tissue-derived autologous CD8+ T cells induced a marked reduction in the activity of lesional T cells and macrophages. Injection of CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells decreased the production of tissue IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha by >90%. The down-regulatory effect of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells was not associated with depletion of synovial CD3+ T cells or synovial CD68+ macrophages, and it could be blocked by Abs against IL-16, a CD8+ T cell-derived cytokine. In the synovial tissue, CD8+ T cells were the major source of IL-16, a natural ligand of the CD4 molecule that can anergize CD4-expressing cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of IL-16 in rheumatoid synovitis was confirmed by treating synovium-SCID mouse chimeras with IL-16. Therapy for 14 days with recombinant human IL-16 significantly inhibited the production of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in the synovium. We propose that tissue-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in rheumatoid synovitis have anti-inflammatory activity that is at least partially mediated by the release of IL-16. Spontaneous production of IL-16 in synovial lesions impairs the functional activity of CD4+ T cells but is insufficient to completely abrogate their stimulation. Supplemental therapy with IL-16 may be a novel and effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (+info)
Blood-induced joint damage: a canine in vivo study.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the direct and indirect (via synovial inflammation) effects of intraarticular bleeding on cartilage in vivo. METHODS: Right knees of 14 beagle dogs were injected with autologous blood on days 0 and 2. Cartilage matrix proteoglycan turnover, collagen damage, and synovial inflammation of these knees, including the cartilage-destructive properties of the synovial tissue, were determined and compared with those of the left control knees on day 4 (short-term effects; n = 7) and day 16 (long-term effects; n = 7). RESULTS: Injected knees had a diminished content of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, and release of proteoglycans was enhanced (days 4 and 16). The synthesis of proteoglycans was significantly inhibited on day 4 but was enhanced on day 16. On day 4 more collagen was denatured in the injected joint than in the control joint; this effect was no longer detectable on day 16. Synovial tissue showed signs of inflammation on day 4 and day 16 but had cartilage-destructive properties only on day 16. CONCLUSION: In vivo exposure of articular cartilage to blood for a relatively short time results in lasting changes in chondrocyte activity and in cartilage matrix integrity, changes that may predict lasting joint damage over time. Interestingly, the direct effect of blood on cartilage precedes the indirect effect via synovial inflammation. (+info)
Finger joint synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis: quantitative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitatively, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the synovial membrane volume in second to fifth metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls, and to compare the synovial membrane volumes with a more easily obtained semi-quantitative score for hypertrophic synovial membrane. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MCP joints of the dominant hand of 37 patients and five controls were examined clinically and by MRI. Laboratory assessments were performed. RESULTS: Median synovial membrane volumes were considerably larger in clinically active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints (e.g. 0.97 ml in the second MCP joint) than in clinically inactive joints (0.54 ml) and control joints (0.04 ml). Nevertheless, group distributions overlapped and marked volume differences were found within clinically uniform groups. The semi-quantitative score was highly correlated with the synovial volumes (Spearman rho = 0.79; P < 0.00001). Synovial membrane volumes were poorly related to the presence of rheumatoid factor and to laboratory markers of inflammation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that synovial membrane volumes, as determined by MRI, in finger joints are related to clinical signs of synovitis, but also that the volumes may vary more than what can be accounted for by the clinical appearances. A semi-quantitative score may be sufficient for more routine purposes. (+info)
Intra-articular primatised anti-CD4: efficacy in resistant rheumatoid knees. A study of combined arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology.
OBJECTIVES: CD4+ T cells sustain the chronic synovial inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SB-210396/CE 9.1 is an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody that has documented efficacy in RA when given intravenously. This study aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of the intra-articular administration of SB-210396/CE 9.1 compared with placebo, examining its mode of action using a combined imaging approach of arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients with active, resistant knee synovitis, were randomised to intra-articular injection of placebo (n=3), 0.4 mg (n=3) or 40 mg (n=7) of anti-CD4 after sequential dynamic gadolinium enhanced MRI, followed by same day arthroscopy and synovial membrane biopsy. Imaging and arthroscopic synovial membrane sampling were repeated at six weeks. This study used a unique region of interest (ROI) analysis mapping the MRI area analysed to the specific biopsy site identified arthroscopically, thus providing data for all three modalities at the same synovial membrane site. RESULTS: 12 patients completed the study (one placebo treated patient refused further MRI). Arthroscopic improvement was observed in 0 of 2 placebo patients but in 10 of 10 patients receiving active drug (>20% in 6 of 10). Improvement in MRI was consistently observed in all patients of the 40 mg group but not in the other two groups. A reduction in SM CD4+ score was noted in the 40 mg group and in the 0.4 mg group. Strong correlations both before and after treatment, were identified between the three imaging modalities. Intra-articular delivery of SB-210396/CE 9.1 was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: SB-210396/CE 9.1 is safe when administered by intra-articular injection. A trend toward efficacy was found by coordinated MRI, arthroscopic, and histological imaging, not seen in the placebo group. The value of ROI analysis was demonstrated. (+info)
Changes in articular synovial lining volume measured by magnetic resonance in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite for chronic knee synovitis.
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance techniques have recently been investigated as tools with which to monitor inflammatory joint disease. Our aim was to use a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted protocol to monitor the short-term changes in knee synovial lining volume in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP). METHODS: Twenty-four out-patients with chronic knee synovitis, from a cohort who had been recruited to a long-term clinical efficacy trial, were recruited for this study. Patients received either intra-articular Sm-153 PHYP combined with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide or 40 mg intra-articular triamcinolone hexacetonide alone. Synovial lining volumes were calculated from three-dimensional T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images made before and after contrast enhancement with thresholding and pixel counting, immediately before and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: Paired pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance data were obtained for 18/24 (75%) patients. There was no significant difference in mean pre-treatment synovial volume between the two treatment groups (139 vs 127 ml). A mean reduction in synovial lining volume was detected in the Sm-153 PHYP/steroid-treated group (139 to 110 ml, P = 0.07) and in the steroid-treated group (127 to 58 ml, P < 0.001). The reduction was significantly greater in the steroid-treated group (-61% vs -23%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term changes in articular synovial lining in response to intra-articular treatment for chronic synovitis may be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. After 3 months, a greater mean reduction in synovial lining volume had occurred in response to intra-articular steroid alone compared to combined Sm-153 PHYP/steroid injection. (+info)
The long-term course of shoulder complaints: a prospective study in general practice.
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term course of shoulder complaints in patients in general practice with special focus on changes in diagnostic category and fluctuations in the severity of the complaints. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Four general practices in The Netherlands. METHOD: All patients (101) with shoulder complaints seen in a 5 month period were included. Assessment took place 26 weeks and 12-18 months after inclusion in the study with a pain questionnaire and a physical examination. RESULTS: A total of 51% of the patients experienced (mostly recurrent) complaints after 26 weeks and 41% after 12-18 months. Diagnostic changes were found over the course of time, mostly from synovial disorders towards functional disorders of the structures of the shoulder girdle, but also the other way round. Although 52 of the 101 patients experienced complaints in week 26, 62% of those patients considered themselves 'cured'. After 12-18 months, 51% of the 39 patients experiencing complaints felt 'cured'. CONCLUSION: Many patients seen with shoulder complaints in general practice have recurrent complaints. The nature of these complaints varies considerably over the course of time, leading to changes in diagnostic category. Because of the fluctuating severity of the complaints over time, feeling 'cured' or not 'cured' is also subject to change over time. (+info)
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome: a prospective follow up and magnetic resonance imaging study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with "pure" remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome, and to investigate its relation with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the anatomical structures affected by inflammation in pure RS3PE syndrome. METHODS: A prospective follow up study of 23 consecutive patients with pure RS3PE syndrome and 177 consecutive patients with PMR diagnosed over a five year period in two Italian secondary referral centres of rheumatology. Hands or feet MRI, or both, was performed at diagnosis in 7 of 23 patients. RESULTS: At inspection evidence of hand and/or foot tenosynovitis was present in all the 23 patients with pure RS3PE syndrome. Twenty one (12%) patients with PMR associated distal extremity swelling with pitting oedema. No significant differences in the sex, age at onset of disease, acute phase reactant values at diagnosis, frequency of peripheral synovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome and frequency of HLA-B7 antigen were present between patients with pure RS3PE and PMR. In both conditions no patient under 50 was observed, the disease frequency increased significantly with age and the highest frequency was present in the age group 70-79 years. Clinical symptoms for both conditions responded promptly to corticosteroids and no patient developed rheumatoid arthritis during the follow up. However, the patients with pure RS3PE syndrome were characterised by shorter duration of treatment, lower cumulative corticosteroid dose and lower frequency of systemic signs/symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Hands and feet MRI showed evidence of tenosynovitis in five patients and joint synovitis in three patients. CONCLUSION: The similarities of demographic, clinical, and MRI findings between RS3PE syndrome and PMR and the concurrence of the two syndromes suggest that these conditions may be part of the same disease and that the diagnostic labels of PMR and RS3PE syndrome may not indicate a real difference. The presence of distal oedema seems to indicate a better prognosis. (+info)