Conversion of (+/-)-synephrine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by Arthrobacter synephrinum. A novel enzymic reaction.
A partically purified enzyme from Arthrobacter synephrinum was found to catalyse the conversion of (+/-)-synphrine into p-hydroxyphrenylacetaldehyde and methylamine. The enzyme is highly specific for synephrine and is distinctly different from monoamine oxidase. (+info)
Hemodynamic effects of synephrine treatment in portal hypertensive rats.
Synephrine, a sympathomimetic alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist, has been shown to induce dose-dependent portal hypotensive effects after acute intravenous infusion. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hemodynamic effects of 8-day administration of synephrine in portal hypertensive rats. Portal hypertension was induced by either partial portal vein ligation (PVL) or bile duct ligation (BDL). Portal hypertensive rats were allocated into one of two groups: vehicle group (0.1 N HCl, 0.5 ml/12 h) or synephrine group (1 mg/kg per 12 h), with 7 rats in each group. Synephrine or vehicle was administered by gavage into PVL and BDL rats for 8 consecutive days. Systemic as well as splanchnic hemodynamic parameters were measured thereafter. Synephrine significantly ameliorated the hyperdynamic state in both PVL and BDL rats. The portal venous pressure in PVL and BDL rats (-13.5% and -10.1%, respectively), portal tributary blood flow (-19.5% and -20.4%) and cardiac index (-12.1% and -18.8%) were significantly reduced, while mean arterial pressure (10.4% and 23.4%) and systemic (26.3% and 51.0%) as well as portal territory (47.1% and 67.7%) vascular resistance were enhanced by treatment of synephrine as compared with vehicle treatment. Our results showed that eight-day administration of synephrine exerted beneficial hemodynamic effects in two models of portal hypertensive rats. (+info)
Microbial metabolism of phenolic amines: degradation of dl-synephrine by an unidentified arthrobacter.
Microorganisms capable of degrading dl-synephrine were isolated from soil of Citrus gardens by enrichment culture, with dl-synephrine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. An organism which appears to be an arthrobacter, but which cannot be identified with any of the presently recognized species was predominant in these isolates. It was found to metabolize synephrine by a pathway involving p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as intermediates. Some of the enzymes of this pathway were demonstrated in cell-free extracts. An aromatic oxygenase, which could also be readily obtained in a cell-free system, was found to degrade 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by meta cleavage. (+info)
LEAKAGE OF TRANSMITTERS IN SALIVARY GLANDS.
Salivary secretion evoked by sympathetic stimulation or by injection of guanethidine, adrenaline or synephrine is slightly reduced by parasympathetic antagonists in doses which abolish the secretory responses to stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve. Similarly, an adrenaline antagonist caused a small diminution of the salivary flow elicited by parasympathetic stimulation or by injection of methacholine chloride. Secretion caused by pilocarpine could be accelerated by physostigmine. We conclude that transmitter leaks in subliminal concentrations, as far as secretion is concerned, from the sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic nerve endings. (+info)
Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.
A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level. (+info)
Lipolysis induced by segment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshu Mark).
The lipolysis induced by Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshu Mark) was investigated using rat fat cells. Peel or segment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange induced the lipolysis in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas juice sac extract did not induce the lipolysis. High concentration of synephrine, which is an adrenergic amine, was detected in the peel or segment wall extract, whereas it was not detected in the juice sac extract. The segment wall extracts from Iyokan and orange had high lipolytic activity, whereas the extracts from grapefruit and lemon did not have lipolytic activity. The beta-antagonist inhibited the lipolysis elicited by the segment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange, whereas alpha-antagonist did not inhibit the lipolysis induced by the segment wall. The lipolysis induced by the segment wall was considerably higher in the visceral fat cells when compared to the subcutaneous fat cells. These results suggest that the segment wall, an edible fraction, from Satsuma mandarin orange might be useful as a functional food, especially as a fat-reducing material. (+info)
Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions.