Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals.
Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury. (+info)
Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs.
Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed. (+info)
Epidemiological field studies of animal populations.
Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered. (+info)
Some leptospira agglutinins detected in domestic animals in British Columbia.
During a period of six years 7,555 bovine sera, 421 canine sera, 251 porcine sera and 135 equine sera were tested for agglutinins to Leptospira interrogans serotypes canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, pomona and sejroe. The bovine sera reacted predominantly with hardjo and/or sejroe at a rate of 15% compared to 3.5% with pomona. Breeding or abortion problems were associated with pomona but not with sejroe/hardjo agglutinins. The canine sera reacted to canicola (9.9%y and icterohemorrhagiae (5.4%), tcted predominantly with canicola (8.9%) and icterohemorrhagiae (8.1%). (+info)
Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves.
Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group. (+info)
The determination of hemoglobin and myoglogin residues as a parameter for testing heat exposure in back bacon.
The use of an extraction of the heme pigments hemoglobin and myoglobin as a test for the heat exposure of back bacon was investigated by treating back bacon at varying temperatures of 50-70 degrees C and times of two to 180 minutes and observing the effect on the absorbance of heme pigment residue after nitrite oxidation. Absorbance at 409 nm was used in place of the more usual 540 nm to provide greater sensitivity in the detection of heme. A decrease in residual heme pigments was time-dependent, particularly at lower temperatures. In view of this factor and the complex nature of the heat exposure of a large block of back bacon, the application of this test would require a calibration of each process. Alternatively, limits to the amounts of heme pigment residue could be set. The heme pigment test is useful in its simplicity and overcomes difficulties associated with the coagulation and enzyme tests. (+info)
Quantitative assessment of the morphology of the pig's head used as a model in surgical experimentation. Part 1: Methods of Measurements.
Thirty-two surface measurements were described for assessment of the effect of complex surgical operations on the skeleton of the face in pigs. The methods of measurements imitate those of anthropometry. The surface measurements can complement cephalometry with data about the changes in the soft tissue and thus improve the documentation of the effect of surgery. This paper can help in the evaluation of complicated osteotomy procedures using the pig as the animal model, for facial reconstruction research in humans. (+info)