Serum levels of total and free IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are increased and maintained in long-term training. (9/2436)

The goals of this study were to determine whether the long-term training regimens experienced by competitive collegiate swimmers would result in altered levels of total and free serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as well as IGF-binding proteins (BP) IGFBP-1 and -3. Two male (Teams 1M and 2M) and one female (Team 2F) teams were studied at the start of training, after 2 mo of training, after 4 mo (2-4 mo had the highest volume of training), after 5 mo (near the end of tapering; only for Team 1M), and several days after training was over. For Team 1M, total IGF-I concentrations were increased by 76% after 4 mo and were subsequently maintained at this level. Total IGF-I responses were more variable for Teams 2F and 2M. Free IGF-I levels were increased nearly twofold for all teams at 2 mo and were maintained or increased further with subsequent training. Only the levels of free IGF-I for Team 1M returned to pretraining values after training had ended. Training had little effect on IGFBP-1 levels. For all teams, serum IGFBP-3 was elevated by 4 mo of training (for Team 2F it was increased at 2 mo) by 30-97% and remained at these higher levels thereafter. The ratio of total IGF-I to IGFBP-3 was not increased by training in any group. These data indicate that serum levels of total and free IGF-I and total IGFBP-3 can be increased with intense training and maintained with reduced training (tapering). The findings show that changes in free IGF-I levels are not accounted for by alterations in the total IGF-I/IGFBP-3 complex or in IGFBP-3 levels and indicate that there are other important determinants of free IGF-I.  (+info)

Neuropeptide-mediated facilitation and inhibition of sensory inputs and spinal cord reflexes in the lamprey. (10/2436)

The effects of neuromodulators present in the dorsal horn [tachykinins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), bombesin, and GABAB agonists] were studied on reflex responses evoked by cutaneous stimulation in the lamprey. Reflex responses were elicited in an isolated spinal cord preparation by electrical stimulation of the attached tail fin. To be able to separate modulator-induced effects at the sensory level from that at the motor or premotor level, the spinal cord was separated into three pools with Vaseline barriers. The caudal pool contained the tail fin. Neuromodulators were added to this pool to modulate sensory inputs evoked by tail fin stimulation. The middle pool contained high divalent cation or low calcium Ringer to block polysynaptic transmission and thus limit the input to the rostral pool to that from ascending axons that project through the middle pool. Ascending inputs and reflex responses were monitored by making intracellular recordings from motor neurons and extracellular recordings from ventral roots in the rostral pool. The tachykinin neuropeptide substance P, which has previously been shown to potentiate sensory input at the cellular and synaptic levels, facilitated tail fin-evoked synaptic inputs to neurons in the rostral pool and concentration dependently facilitated rostral ventral root activity. Substance P also facilitated the modulatory effects of tail fin stimulation on ongoing locomotor activity in the rostral pool. In contrast, NPY and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen, both of which have presynaptic inhibitory effects on sensory afferents, reduced the strength of ascending inputs and rostral ventral root responses. We also examined the effects of the neuropeptide bombesin, which is present in sensory axons, at the cellular, synaptic, and reflex levels. As with substance P, bombesin increased tail fin stimulation-evoked inputs and ventral root responses in the rostral pool. These effects were associated with the increased excitability of slowly adapting mechanosensory neurons and the potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic inputs to spinobulbar neurons. These results show the possible behavioral relevance of neuropeptide-mediated modulation of sensory inputs at the cellular and synaptic levels. Given that the types and locations of neuropeptides in the dorsal spinal cord of the lamprey show strong homologies to that of higher vertebrates, these results are presumably relevant to other vertebrate systems.  (+info)

Effects of Tyr-MIF-1 on stress-induced analgesia and the blockade of development of morphine tolerance by stress in mice. (11/2436)

The role of Tyr-MIF-1 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) in biological responses to stress exposure was examined in mice. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular administration of Tyr-MIF-1 attenuated not only footshock (FS)- and forced swimming (SW)-stress-induced analgesia (SIA) but also socio-psychological (PSY)-SIA that, when using the communication box, is produced without any direct physical nociceptions. Tyr-MIF-1 also disrupted the suppressive effect of concurrent exposure to FS- and PSY-stress on the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. In elevated-plus-maze tests, mice treated with Tyr-MIF-1 tended to spend more time in the open arms compared with the control group, suggesting the anxiolytic properties of the peptide. Thus, the finding that Tyr-MIF-1 modulates these stress responses suggests that the peptide regulates an endogenous biological alert system responding to stress exposure, perhaps, counteracting the excessive response of the system. Furthermore, Tyr-MIF-1, in the case of PSY-stress, through the attenuation of emotional factors such as fear and anxiety, may suppress PSY-SIA and inhibition by PSY-stress of the development of morphine tolerance.  (+info)

Depressive state with anxiety in repeated cold-stressed mice in forced swimming tests. (12/2436)

The effects of various types of stress and drugs were studied to assess mouse performance in forced swimming tests, following characterization of SART (specific alternation of rhythm in environmental temperature) stress. Immobility time in the test decreased in mice subjected to SART, acute cold and restraint stress. No change was noted due to chronic cold stress or repeated fasting. The shortened time did not recover even 24 hr after the end of SART and chronic restraint stress. The time in SART-stressed mice finally recovered at 5-7 days. Shortening of immobility time in SART-stressed mice was inhibited by diazepam and repeated imipramine but not by lithium carbonate. In chronic restraint-stressed mice, this time was inhibited by repeated lithium carbonate but not diazepam or imipramine. SART stress would thus appear related to anxiety and depression and may be useful for detecting new types of antidepressants.  (+info)

Diplopia in a swimmer due to badly fitting goggles. (13/2436)

An unusual effect of badly fitting swimming goggles is described. The goggles pressed on the trochlea of the left eye, interfering with the action of the superior oblique muscle. Diplopia resulted, which took several weeks to resolve.  (+info)

Muscle activity in steady swimming scup, Stenotomus chrysops, varies with fiber type and body position. (14/2436)

The red and pink aerobic muscle fibers are used to power steady swimming in fishes. We examined red and pink muscle recruitment and function during swimming in scup, Stenotomus chrysops, through electromyography and high-speed cine. Computer analysis of electromyograms (EMGs) allowed determination of initial speed of muscle recruitment and duty cycle and phase of muscle electromyographic activity for both fiber types. This analysis was carried out for three longitudinal positions over a range of swimming speeds. Fiber type and longitudinal position both affected swimming speed of initial recruitment. Posterior muscle is recruited at the lowest swimming speed, whereas more anterior muscle is not initially recruited until higher speeds. At more anterior positions, the initial recruitment of pink muscle occurs at a higher swimming speed than the recruitment of red muscle. The duty cycle of pink muscle EMG activity is significantly shorter than that of red muscle, reflecting a difference in the onset time of activation during each cycle of length change: pink muscle onset time follows that of red. The different patterns of usage of red and pink muscle reflect differences in their contraction kinetics. Because pink muscle generates force more rapidly than red muscle, it can be activated later in each tailbeat cycle. Pink muscle is used to augment red muscle power production at higher swimming speeds, allowing a higher aerobically based steady swimming speed than that possible by red muscle alone.  (+info)

Commissural interneurons in rhythm generation and intersegmental coupling in the lamprey spinal cord. (15/2436)

Commissural interneurons in rhythm generation and intersegmental coupling in the lamprey spinal cord. To test the necessity of spinal commissural interneurons in the generation of the swim rhythm in lamprey, longitudinal midline cuts of the isolated spinal cord preparation were made. Fictive swimming was then induced by bath perfusion with an excitatory amino acid while recording ventral root activity. When the spinal cord preparation was cut completely along the midline into two lateral hemicords, the rhythmic activity of fictive swimming was lost, usually replaced with continuous ventral root spiking. The loss of the fictive swim rhythm was not due to nonspecific damage produced by the cut because rhythmic activity was present in split regions of spinal cord when the split region was still attached to intact cord. The quality of this persistent rhythmic activity, quantified with an autocorrelation method, declined with the distance of the split spinal segment from the remaining intact spinal cord. The deterioration of the rhythm was characterized by a lengthening of burst durations and a shortening of the interburst silent phases. This pattern of deterioration suggests a loss of rhythmic inhibitory inputs. The same pattern of rhythm deterioration was seen in preparations with the rostral end of the spinal cord cut compared with those with the caudal end cut. The results of this study indicate that commissural interneurons are necessary for the generation of the swimming rhythm in the lamprey spinal cord, and the characteristic loss of the silent interburst phases of the swimming rhythm is consistent with a loss of inhibitory commissural interneurons. The results also suggest that both descending and ascending commissural interneurons are important in the generation of the swimming rhythm. The swim rhythm that persists in the split cord while still attached to an intact portion of spinal cord is thus imposed by interneurons projecting from the intact region of cord into the split region. These projections are functionally short because rhythmic activity was lost within approximately five spinal segments from the intact region of spinal cord.  (+info)

Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test. (16/2436)

1. The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. 2. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 microg per mouse i.c.v.), apamin (3 ng per mouse i.c.v.), charybdotoxin (1 microg per mouse i.c.v.) and gliquidone (6 microg per mouse i.c.v.) administered 20 min before the test produced anti-immobility comparable to that induced by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (15 mg kg(-1) s.c.) and imipramine (30 mg kg(-1) s.c.). 3. By contrast pinacidil (10-20 microg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (10-20 microg per mouse i.c.v.) and cromakalim (20-30 microg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions. 4. Repeated administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to the mKv1.1 gene (1 and 3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time of mice 72 h after the last injection. At day 7, the increasing effect produced by aODN disappeared. A degenerate mKv1.1 oligonucleotide (dODN), used as control, did not produce any effect in comparison with saline- and vector-treated mice. 5. At the highest effective dose, potassium channels modulators and the mKv1.1 aODN did not impair motor coordination, as revealed by the rota rod test, nor did they modify spontaneous motility as revealed by the Animex apparatus. 6. These results suggest that modulation of potassium channels plays an important role in the regulation of immobility time in the mouse forced swimming test.  (+info)