(1/131) Multiple eyelid cysts resembling apocrine hidrocystomas in three Persian cats and one Himalayan cat.
Multiple eyelid cysts were evaluated and treated in four cats. Surgical removal of the cysts was performed in two cats. Histopathologic examination revealed multilocular cystic structures of various size. The cysts were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with papillary or cystic projections into the cyst lumen. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules were seen within the apical cytoplasm of many of the cells. The eyelid masses in these cats resembled apocrine hidrocystomas in human beings, both clinically and on histopathologic examination. (+info)
(2/131) Papillary hidradenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of steroid receptor profile with a focus on apocrine differentiation.
AIM: To make a quantitative evaluation by image analysis of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and androgen receptors in papillary hidradenomas and anogenital sweat glands. METHODS: 20 papillary hidradenomas and the anogenital sweat glands detected in surgical specimens selected from 10 vulvectomies for squamous carcinoma, eight haemorrhoidectomies, and one anal polypectomy, all from female patients, were investigated by the avidinstreptavidin peroxidase testing system. RESULTS: 90% of papillary hidradenomas and almost all the anogenital sweat glands showed immunoreactivity for oestrogen receptor and, more weakly, for progesterone receptor, with immunolabelled nuclear area ranging from 10% to 90%. Conversely conventional sweat glands did not show any nuclear staining. Overexpression of androgen receptors occurred in 20% of papillary hidradenomas, with nuclear staining strictly bordering papillary epithelium with apocrine differentiation. There was no immunoreactivity for androgen receptors in anogenital sweat glands. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen and progesterone receptors seem to represent reliable markers for differentiating between anogenital sweat glands and conventional sweat glands, and a further link to explain why papillary hidradenomas occur almost exclusively in the female anogenital region. Positivity for oestrogen/progesterone receptors suggests that epithelia either of anogenital sweat glands or of papillary hidradenomas are controlled by ovarian steroid hormones. Androgen receptor nuclear staining of the epithelium with apocrine differentiation in vulvar papillary hidradenoma strengthens its homology with breast duct papilloma. (+info)
(3/131) Androgen receptors: a marker to increase sensitivity for identifying breast cancer in skin metastasis of unknown primary site.
Metastatic lesions to the skin may present a dilemma in the identification of the primary site. Breast carcinoma, metastatic to the skin, that is negative for estrogen receptors (ERs) and/or progesterone receptors (PRs) may be mimicked by a number of other metastatic lesions. In the present study, 16 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded infiltrating ductal carcinomas metastatic to the skin, which were ER-/PR-, ER-/PR+, or ER+/PR-; 5 metastatic lesions to the skin from primary lesions other than breast cancer; and 5 eccrine tumors were examined for immunoreactivity to the androgen receptor. The majority of the metastatic breast lesions (82%) exhibited immunopositivity for androgen receptor, whereas the metastatic skin lesions from primary lesions other than breast cancer and the eccrine tumors were immunonegative. Thus, androgen receptor immunohistochemistry could serve as a marker to increase sensitivity for identifying breast cancer in skin metastasis of unknown primary sites. (+info)
(4/131) Malignant hidradenoma: a rare sweat gland tumour.
Malignant hidradenoma is a rare sweat gland carcinoma, which can have an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. A case is reported, in an elderly male. The tumour had a histologic similarity to its benign counterpart, but exhibited additional features of infiltrative growth pattern and invasion of adjacent tissue. (+info)
(5/131) Eccrine adenocarcinoma of the footpads in 2 cats.
Adenocarcinoma of sweat glands of the footpads was diagnosed in 2 cats. Clinical signs included lameness and swelling of multiple digits. Pulmonary metastasis was detected in one case. Diagnosis was based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Eccrine adenocarcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of footpads lesions in aged cats. (+info)
(6/131) Clear cell hidradenoma of the eyelid: a case report.
Sweat gland tumours are extremely rare in the eyelids. We report a case of a clear cell hidradenoma (nodular hidradenoma) in an elderly female, who had presented with a nodular swelling in a eyelid. Clear cell hidradenomas arise as intradermal nodules from eccrine sweat glands. Ultrastructural and enzyme histochemical studies have shown nodular hidradenomas to be intermediate between eccrine poroma and eccrine spiradenoma. No apocrine differentiation has ever been observed in these tumours. Malignant forms are distinctly unusual. This case is being documented for the extremely uncommon presentation of this tumour as an eyelid mass. Complete primary excision is advocated and local steroid preparations should bot be used. (+info)
(7/131) Molecular cytogenetic comparison of apocrine hyperplasia and apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
The relationship of apocrine metaplasia to invasive breast cancer is controversial. Different authors have reported that apocrine differentiation in proliferative lesions may be a risk factor, a precursor lesion, or have no association with malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic alterations in benign apocrine hyperplasia with apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive apocrine carcinomas of the breast using comparative genomic hybridization. The mean number of alterations in apocrine hyperplasia was 4.1 (n = 10) compared to 10.2 in apocrine DCIS (n = 10) and 14.8 (n = 4) in invasive carcinoma. The most common alterations in apocrine hyperplasia were gains of 2q, 13q, and 1p and losses of 1p, 17q, 22q, 2p, 10q, and 16q. Apocrine DCIS and invasive carcinomas showed gains of 1q, 2q, 1p, and losses of 1p, 22q, 17q, 12q, and 16q as their most common DNA copy number changes. Apocrine hyperplasia is considered to be a benign lesion and its relationship to invasive carcinoma remains unclear. Our data suggest that some apocrine hyperplasias may be clonal proliferations. The mean number of alterations are lower in apocrine hyperplasia, however the changes show considerable overlap with those identified in in situ and invasive apocrine carcinoma. These alterations are also commonly seen in nonapocrine breast cancer. The data are consistent with apocrine hyperplasia as a putative nonobligate precursor of apocrine carcinoma. (+info)
(8/131) Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the intra-epidermal sweat gland duct. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a female renal transplant patient aged 45 years is described with a review of pertinent literature. RESULTS: The primary tumour was highly pleomorphic. In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast. The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3. Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment. The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma. The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma has proven resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. We report the first use of docetaxel in the management of this disease. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses. Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour. (+info)