Some aspects of sexually transmitted disease in Swaziland. (1/59)

A survey of sexually transmitted diseases was attempted in Swaziland. Time and the terms of reference limited its scope, but much interesting information was gathered. Neither the prevalence nor the relative frequency of the different diseases in the community could be ascertained, but there was evidence to support the local impression that the sexually transmitted diseases present an increasing problem in Swaziland. An important problem was that of case finding and two aspects of this are stressed: (1) A general lack of knowledge concerning the venereal diseases; (2) The large number of men infected by 'casual' girl friends who cannot easily be traced, and who form a reservoir of infection in the community.  (+info)

An assessment of safe injection practices in health facilities in Swaziland. (2/59)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the magnitude and causes of unsafe injection practices in Swaziland. DESIGN: A safe injection practices questionnaire was administered and injection practice was observed. SETTING: A selected variety of health facilities in Swaziland. SUBJECTS: Health workers in each facility. OUTCOME MEASURES: Unsafe injection and collection for disposal practices. RESULTS: All injections observed involved disposable syringes. Although all injections were given at the correct site, using the correct dosage and equipment, unsafe injection technique was observed. Needles were changed on the same syringe at 8 facilities (31%) and syringes and needles were reused at 2 facilities (8%). Recapping of needles after use occurred at 8 facilities (31%). More than one-quarter of nurses reported having pricked their finger in the previous 6 months; in almost half of these cases this was after administration of an injection. Seven nurses (25%) recalled seeing a case of an abscess or a mild adverse event following an injection in the previous 12 months. Interviewers observed used syringes and needles being placed in a safe container in three-quarters of facilities. Almost all respondents reported that syringes and needles were buried or burned. CONCLUSIONS: Auto-disable syringes should be used for all routine and supplemental vaccination. The increased cost of auto-disable syringes represents only a small increase in the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) budget.  (+info)

Direct observation of treatment for tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial of community health workers versus family members. (3/59)

We implemented community-based direct observation of treatment, short course (DOTS), including a randomized controlled trial of direct observation either by community health workers (CHWs) or family members, under operational conditions in a region of Swaziland. There was a high death rate of 15%, due to the high HIV rates in the region. There was no significant difference in the cure and completion rate between direct observation of treatment by CHWs and family members [2% difference (95% CI -3% to 7%), exact P = 0.52]. A before-and-after comparison of outcomes demonstrated that the cure and treatment completion rate improved from a baseline of 27-67% following implementation of community-based DOTS. We conclude that community-based tuberculosis DOTS can improve successful outcomes of treatment. However, direct observation can be undertaken effectively using either daily family or CHW supervision. The choice of treatment supporter should be based on access, patient preference and availability of CHW resource.  (+info)

Seven years of regional malaria control collaboration--Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. (4/59)

The Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative is a joint development program between the governments of Mozambique, Swaziland, and South Africa, which includes malaria control as a core component of the initiative. Vector control through indoor residual spraying (IRS) was incrementally introduced in southern Mozambique between November 2000 and February 2004. Surveillance to monitor its impact was conducted by annual cross-sectional surveys to assess the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, entomologic monitoring, and malaria case notification in neighboring South Africa and Swaziland. In southern Mozambique, there was a significant reduction in P. falciparum prevalence after the implementation of IRS, with an overall relative risk of 0.74 for each intervention year (P < 0.001), ranging from 0.66 after the first year to 0.93 after the fifth intervention year. Substantial reductions in notified malaria cases were reported in South Africa and Swaziland over the same period. The success of the program in reducing malaria transmission throughout the target area provides a strong argument for investment in regional malaria control.  (+info)

Food insufficiency is associated with high-risk sexual behavior among women in Botswana and Swaziland. (5/59)

BACKGROUND: Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months) and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.36), sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.93), intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08), and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24-2.28). Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.  (+info)

Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries. (6/59)


Community knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on malaria in Swaziland: a country earmarked for malaria elimination. (7/59)


Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries. (8/59)

The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.  (+info)