The effect of gastrointestinal parasitism on blood copper and hemoglobin levels in sheep.
Endoparasitism is a problem in Trinidad, as it is in most tropical countries. Parasite infection has been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of swayback disease (which is also prevalent in Trinidad), but the mode of action has not been clearly defined, although it has been suggested that parasites interfere with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of endoparasitism on blood copper levels and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in sheep in Trinidad. Copper was administered intramuscularly to parasite infected and noninfected animals. The results showed that parasitism has a depressing effect on blood copper and Hb levels, even when administered parenterally. It is concluded that parasitism can aggravate existing hypocupremia and possibly influence the expression of swayback disease. (+info)
Multiple sclerosis in research workers studying swayback in lambs: an updated report.
Four out of seven research workers into swayback disease, a neurological disease of lambs, developed symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis, and were reported in 1947. A further worker later joined the group. All of the original seven have died and two at necropsy had multiple areas of demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. The chance of four or more out of a random group of eight men developing multiple sclerosis is about one in a thousand million. Multiple sclerosis has not occurred in other workers on swayback disease elsewhere. (+info)
Swayback (enzootic ataxia) in Alberta lambs.
Swayback (enzootic ataxia), a disease not previously described in Canada, occurred in newborn lambs in Alberta in 1972. Of 100 lambs born in one flock, over 60 succumbed in the enzootic. The diagnosis was based on the presence of a) gross cavitations and gelatinous lesions of the cerebral white matter in 16 of 24 (66.67%) lambs examined, b) central chromatolysis and hyalinization of neurons of the red and vestibular nuclei and reticular formation and of the lateral and ventral horns of the spinal cord, c) myelin deficiencies of the dorsolateral and sulcomarginal funiculi of the spinal cord and d) low hepatic and serum copper levels in affected lambs and low serum copper levels in the ewes. The feeding of sugar beet-(beta saccharifera) top silage to the ewes during pregnancy, lambing and lactation, and its relationship to the enzootic is discussed. (+info)
California goats with a disease resembling enzootic ataxia or swayback.
In a retrospective study typical signs and lesions of enzootic ataxia or swayback were found in 16 young dairy goats from eight widely scattered herds in California. In addition to the constant appearance of chromatolytic neurons in brainstem and spinal cord, and myelin deficiency in certain tracts of the cord, cerebellar hypoplasia was found frequently. Liver copper was subnormal in six of nine kids tested. The disease is viewed as a developmental defect in which failure of neuronal perikaryon metabolism leads to distal axonopathy with secondary demyelination. (+info)