Incisional hernias in patients with aortic aneurysmal disease: the importance of suture technique.
OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of incisional hernia at 12 months in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair compared with others undergoing other surgery through midline incisions. METHODS: A prospective study of 1023 patients, 85 of these with aneurysmal disease. Wounds were continuously closed and the suture technique was monitored by the suture length to wound length ratio. RESULTS: Wound incisions were longer and operations lasted longer in aneurysm patients than in others. Incisional hernia was less common if closure was with a suture length to wound length ratio of at least four. Wounds were closed with a ratio of four or more in 39% (33 of 85) of aneurysm patients and in 59% (546 of 923) of others (p < 0.01). In aneurysm patients no wound dehiscence was recorded, the rate of wound infection was low and incisional hernia occurred in the same amount as in others. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the rate of incisional hernia is similar in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysmal disease and others. Wounds are closed with a less meticulous suture technique in aneurysm patients. (+info)
Zernike representation of corneal topography height data after nonmechanical penetrating keratoplasty.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a mathematical method for decomposition of discrete corneal topography height data into a set of Zernike polynomials and to demonstrate the clinical applicability of these computations in the postkeratoplasty cornea. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with either Fuchs' dystrophy (n = 20) or keratoconus (n = 30) were seen at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year (before suture removal) and again after suture removal following nonmechanical trephination with the excimer laser. Patients were assessed using regular keratometry, corneal topography (TMS-1, simulated keratometry [SimK]), subjective refraction, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) at each interval. A set of Zernike coefficients with radial degree 8 was calculated to fit two model surfaces: a complete representation (TOTAL) and a representation with parabolic terms only to define an approximate spherocylindrical surface (PARABOLIC). The root mean square error (RMS) was calculated comparing the corneal raw height data with TOTAL (TOTALRMS) and PARABOLIC (PARABOLICRMS). The cylinder of subjective refraction was correlated with the keratometric readings, the SimK, and the respective Zernike parameter. Visual acuity was correlated with the tilt components of the Zernike expansion. RESULTS: The measured corneal surface could be approximated by the composed surface 1 with TOTALRMS < or = 1.93 microm and by surface 2 with PARABOLICRMS < or = 3.66 microm. Mean keratometric reading after suture removal was 2.8+/-0.6 D. At all follow-up examinations, the SimK yielded higher values, whereas the keratometric reading and the refractive cylinder yielded lower values than the respective Zernike parameter. The correlation of the Zernike representation and the refractive cylinder (P = 0.02 at 3 months, P = 0.05 at 6 months and at 1 year, and P = 0.01 after suture removal) was much better than the correlation of the SimK and refractive cylinder (P = 0.3 at 3 months, P = 0.4 at 6 months, P = 0.2 at 1 year, and P = 0.1 after suture removal). Visual acuity increased from 0.23+/-0.10 at the 3-month evaluation to 0.54+/-0.19 after suture removal. After suture removal, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between VA and tilt (P = 0.02 in patients with keratoconus and P = 0.05 in those with Fuchs' dystrophy). CONCLUSIONS: Zernike representation of corneal topography height data renders a reconstruction of clinically relevant corneal topography parameters with a marked reduction of redundance and a small error. Correlation of amount/axis of refractive cylinder with respective Zernike parameters is more accurate than with keratometry or respective SimK values of corneal topography analysis. (+info)
Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.
Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. (+info)
Mesh-and-glue technique to prevent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid after implantation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene dura substitute--technical note.
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) can be used as a dura substitute but is associated with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the suture line. Fibrin glue alone may not prevent this problem. This new method for sealing the suture line in ePTFE membrane uses an absorbable polyglycoic acid mesh soaked with fibrinogen fluid placed on the suture line. Thrombin fluid is then slowly applied to the wet mesh, forming a large fibrin membrane reinforced by the mesh over the suture line. Only one of 33 patients in whom this technique was used had CSF leakage, whereas 12 of 59 patients in whom a dural defect was closed with ePTFE alone showed postoperative subcutaneous CSF collection (p < 0.05). Our clinical experiences clearly show the efficacy of the mesh-and-glue technique to prevent CSF leakage after artificial dural substitution. Mesh and glue can provide an adequate repair for small dural defect. The mesh-and-glue technique may also be used for arachnoid sealing in spinal surgery. (+info)
Closure techniques for fetoscopic access sites in the rabbit at mid-gestation.
Operative fetoscopy may be limited by its relatively high associated risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. The objective of this study was to study closure techniques of the access site for fetoscopy in the mid-gestational rabbit. A total of 32 does (288 amniotic sacs) at 22 days gestational age (GA; term = 32 days) underwent 14 gauge needle fetoscopy, by puncture through surgically exposed amnion. Entry site was randomly allocated to four closure technique groups: myometrial suture (n = 14), fibrin sealant (n = 15), autologous maternal blood plug (n = 13), collagen plug (n = 14); 16 sacs were left unclosed (positive controls), and the unmanipulated 216 sacs were negative controls. Membrane integrity, presence of amniotic fluid and fetal lung to body weight ratio (FLBWR) were evaluated at 31 days GA. Following fetoscopy without an attempt to close the membranes, amniotic integrity was restored in 41% of cases (amniotic integrity in controls 94%; P = 0.00001). When the access site was surgically closed, the amnion resealed in 20-44% of cases, but none of the tested techniques was significantly better than the others or than positive controls. Permanent amniotic disruption was associated with a significantly lower FLBWR in all groups. In conclusion, the rate of fetoscopy-induced permanent membrane defects in this model did not improve by using any of the closure techniques tested here. (+info)
Everting suture correction of lower lid involutional entropion.
AIMS: To assess the long term efficacy of everting sutures in the correction of lower lid involutional entropion and to quantify the effect upon lower lid retractor function. METHODS: A prospective single armed clinical trial of 62 eyelids in 57 patients undergoing everting suture correction of involutional entropion. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months postoperatively. The main outcome variables were lower lid position and the change in lower lid retractor function. RESULTS: When compared with the non-entropic side, the entropic lid had a greater degree of horizontal laxity and poorer lower lid retractor function. These differences however, were not significant. At the conclusion of the study and after a mean follow up period of 31 months, the entropion had recurred in 15% of the patients. There were no treatment failures in the group of five patients with recurrent entropion. The improvement in lower lid retractor function after the insertion of lower lid everting sutures did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference between the treatment failure group and the group with a successful outcome with regard to: the degree of horizontal lid laxity or lower lid retractor function present preoperatively; patient age or sex; an earlier history of surgery for entropion. There was neither a demonstrable learning effect nor a significant intersurgeon difference in outcome. The overall 4 year mortality rate was 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of everting sutures in the correction of primary or recurrent lower lid involutional entropion is a simple, successful, long lasting, and cost effective procedure. (+info)
Screw versus suture fixation of Mitchell's osteotomy. A prospective, randomised study.
We studied prospectively 30 patients who had a Mitchell's osteotomy secured by either a suture followed by immobilisation in a plaster boot for six weeks, or by a cortical screw with early mobilisation. The mean time for return to social activities after fixation by a screw was 2.9 weeks and to work 4.9 weeks, which was significantly earlier than those who had stabilisation by a suture (5.7 and 8.7 weeks, respectively; p < 0.001). Use of a screw also produced a higher degree of patient satisfaction at six weeks, and an earlier return to wearing normal footwear. The improvement in forefoot scores was significantly greater after fixation by a screw at six weeks (p = 0.036) and three months (p = 0.024). At one year, two screws had been removed because of pain at the site of the screw head. Internal fixation of Mitchell's osteotomy by a screw allows the safe early mobilisation of patients and reduces the time required for convalescence. (+info)
Increase in orthotopic murine corneal transplantation rejection rate with anterior synechiae.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the immunologic effect of anterior synechiae (AS) in a murine model of corneal transplantation. METHODS: Orthotopic penetrating keratoplasty with 12 interrupted sutures was performed on C57BL/6 donor mice and BALB/c recipient mice without AS (AS- group). In contrast to suturing in the AS- group, 3 of the 12 sutures were placed to create AS (AS+ group). The average graft opacity scores and rejection rates of both groups were compared. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) reactions and delayed hypersensitivity (DH) were evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation. Corneal cytokine expression was evaluated. RESULTS: The opacity scores of the AS+ group were consistently greater than those of the AS- group, and the rejection rate of the AS+ group was significantly greater than that of the AS- group (86% versus 54%, P = 0.03). The AS+ group had significantly higher CTL activity compared with the AS- group. There was no significant difference in DH between the two groups. The cytokine expression pattern in the AS+ group became similar to that of the AS- group in which the grafts were rejected. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that AS impairs ocular immune privilege by mediating CTL activity, but without intensifying the DH response. Therefore, AS is a critical risk factor in allograft rejection in a murine model of corneal transplantation. (+info)