Pregnancy after atrial repair for transposition of the great arteries.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of pregnancy in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) who have undergone atrial repair. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis (1962-94) of 342 TGA patients who underwent atrial repair. Of 231 known late survivors, 48 were women over 18 years old who were interviewed about possible reproductive plans and previous pregnancies. As a control, comparison was made with data of 57 500 women (mean age 26 years) obtained from the Swiss Statistical Bank in Bern. RESULTS: Mean follow up was 13.7 years; 66% remained asymptomatic, 29% had mild to moderate cardiac symptoms, and 5% suffered from severe cardiac symptoms (New York Heart Association grade III-IV). Thirty six of the 48 women wished to bear children and, to date, there have been 10 live births, two spontaneous first trimester abortions, and one induced abortion at 16 weeks. During pregnancy there was one case of cardiac deterioration and two cases of pneumonia. There was no evidence of congenital heart disease in the children. CONCLUSIONS: In this relatively small series the completion of pregnancy in women with TGA who had undergone atrial repair and who had normal functional cardiac status was uncomplicated (+info)
Survival and prognostic factors of invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
To determine prognostic factors for survival in bone marrow transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis (IA), we retrospectively reviewed 27 IA cases observed in our bone marrow transplantation unit between January 1994 and October 1994. On 30 September 1997, six patients were alive and disease-free. The median survival after IA diagnosis was 36 days. Of eight variables found to be related to survival according to the univariate analysis, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) status at IA diagnosis (P = .0008) and the cumulative prednisolone dose taken during the week preceding IA diagnosis (CPDlw) (P < .0001) were selected by a backward stepwise Cox regression model. A three-stage classification was established: CPD1w of < or =7 mg/kg (3 of 8 patients died; 60-day survival rate, 88%), CPD1w of >7 mg/kg and no GVHD (9 of 10 patients died; 60-day survival rate, 20%), and CPD1w of >7 mg/kg and active acute grade 2 or more or extensive chronic GVHD (9 of 9 patients died; 30-day survival rate, 0) (P < .0001). (+info)
A case of long-term survival with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage central-type squamous cell lung cancer treated by photodynamic therapy.
The present report is on a 67-year-old man with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage centrally located squamous cell cancer of the lung. He was diagnosed as small cell lung cancer with multiple metastasis to the ipsilateral lung and was found to have a central-type early-stage squamous cell cancer by bronchoscope. After obtaining a complete response to the small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy was applied to the squamous cell carcinoma, resulting in complete disappearance of the tumor. Recurrence of small cell cancer occurred at the ipsilateral lung and this patient died of small cell cancer 8 years after initiation of treatment. Post mortem examination confirmed complete disappearance of squamous cell cancer treated by photodynamic therapy. This is a rare case of long-term survival with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage central-type squamous cell lung cancer successfully treated by photodynamic therapy. (+info)
Toward sensitive practice: issues for physical therapists working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high rates of prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in the United States and Canada suggest that physical therapists work, often unknowingly, with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The purposes of this qualitative study were to explore the reactions of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse to physical therapy and to listen to their ideas about how practitioners could be more sensitive to their needs. The dynamics and long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse, as currently understood by mental health researchers and as described by the participants, are summarized to provide a context for the findings of this study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven female survivors (aged 19-62 years) participated in semistructured interviews in which they described their reactions to physical therapy. RESULTS: Survivors' reactions to physical therapy, termed "long-term sequelae of abuse that detract from feeling safe in physical therapy," are reported. Participant-identified suggestions that could contribute to the sense of safety are shared. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Although the physical therapist cannot change the survivor's history, an appreciation of issues associated with child sexual abuse theoretically can increase clinicians' understanding of survivors' reactions during treatment. We believe that attention by the physical therapist to the client's sense of safety throughout treatment can maximize the benefits of the physical therapy experience for the client who is a survivor. (+info)
Ultrasound B-mode changes in the uterus and ovaries and Doppler changes in the uterus after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in childhood.
Internal genitalia and uterine blood flow were assessed by ultrasound in 12 females 4.0-10.9 years after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma. Median age of the participants was 12.7 years (range 6.1-17.6) at bone marrow transplantation and 21.5 years (11.6-25.6) at the follow-up study. At follow-up all had entered puberty and 11/12 females had experienced the menarche. Eight females received sex steroid replacement therapy, three had spontaneous pubertal development and one woman experienced symptoms of estrogen deficiency. Median uterine and ovarian volumes were significantly reduced to -2.6 standard deviation scores (SDS) (-6.3 to -0.6), P = 0.002, and -2.6 SDS (-4.8 to -0.5), P = 0.002, respectively, compared with normal controls. Follicles were only detectable in two individuals. Uterine blood flow was impaired, as a systolic blood flow could be measured in 6/9 individuals, and a diastolic blood flow in 1/9 females. Our results indicate that the prescribed dosage of hormone replacement therapy, which was sufficient to induce bleeding and suppress other stigmata of premature menopause, was inadequate to generate normal uterine growth. In order to achieve uterine growth higher doses of hormone replacement therapy may be required. Our results confirm pelvic ultrasound as a reliable tool for investigation of internal female genitalia; however, in an infertility setting further tests are indicated. (+info)
Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.
Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties. (+info)
Patient survival after D1 and D2 resections for gastric cancer: long-term results of the MRC randomized surgical trial. Surgical Co-operative Group.
Controversy still exists on the optimal surgical resection for potentially curable gastric cancer. Much better long-term survival has been reported in retrospective/non-randomized studies with D2 resections that involve a radical extended regional lymphadenectomy than with the standard D1 resections. In this paper we report the long-term survival of patients entered into a randomized study, with follow-up to death or 3 years in 96% of patients and a median follow-up of 6.5 years. In this prospective trial D1 resection (removal of regional perigastric nodes) was compared with D2 resection (extended lymphadenectomy to include level 1 and 2 regional nodes). Central randomization followed a staging laparotomy. Out of 737 patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma registered, 337 patients were ineligible by staging laparotomy because of advanced disease and 400 were randomized. The 5-year survival rates were 35% for D1 resection and 33% for D2 resection (difference -2%, 95% CI = -12%-8%). There was no difference in the overall 5-year survival between the two arms (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.39, where HR > 1 implies a survival benefit to D1 surgery). Survival based on death from gastric cancer as the event was similar in the D1 and D2 groups (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.79-1.39) as was recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.82-1.29). In a multivariate analysis, clinical stages II and III, old age, male sex and removal of spleen and pancreas were independently associated with poor survival. These findings indicate that the classical Japanese D2 resection offers no survival advantage over D1 surgery. However, the possibility that D2 resection without pancreatico-splenectomy may be better than standard D1 resection cannot be dismissed by the results of this trial. (+info)
How much better can we predict dialysis patient survival using clinical data?
OBJECTIVE: To use three approaches to compare dialysis survival prediction based on variables included in the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) with prediction based on a clinically enriched set of variables. DATA SOURCE: The United States Renal Data System Case Mix Severity data set containing demographic, clinical, functional, nutritional, and treatment details about a random sample of 4,797 adult dialysis patients from 291 treatment units, incident to dialysis in 1986 and 1987. STUDY DESIGN: This observational study uses baseline patient characteristics in two proportional hazards survival models: the BASE model incorporates age, race, sex, and cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD); the FULL model includes these and additional clinical information. We compare each model's performance using (1) the c-index, (2) observed median survival in strata of predicted risk, and (3) predicted survival for patients with different characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The FULL model's c-index (0.709, 0.708-0.711) is significantly higher than that of the BASE model (0.675, 0.675-0.676), indicating better discrimination. Second, the sickest patients identified by the FULL model were in fact sicker than those identified as sickest by the BASE model, with observed median survival of 451 days versus 524. Third, survival predictions for sickest patients using the FULL model are one-third shorter than those based on the BASE model. CONCLUSIONS: The model with more detailed clinical information predicted survival better than the BASE model. Clinical characteristics enable more accurate predictions, particularly for the sickest patients. Thus, clinical characteristics should be considered when making quality assessments for dialysis patients. (+info)