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(1/1206) Correlation of temperature and toxicity in murine studies of staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.

This study describes a quick (<12 h) assay for detecting temperature decreases in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p. ) with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, or SEC3 or toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and a potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Toxin-specific antisera effectively neutralized the temperature fluctuations in this model. Orally administered SEA or SEB (50 microg/animal), with or without LPS, did not have an effect on temperature or lethality. Versus wild-type mice, transgenic knockout mice lacking the p55 receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or gamma interferon were protected against an i.p. challenge of SEA plus LPS. The p75 receptor for TNF and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 have a negligible role in this toxic shock model.  (+info)

(2/1206) Differentiation of human CD8 T cells: implications for in vivo persistence of CD8+ CD28- cytotoxic effector clones.

CD8 T cells contain a distinct subset of CD8+ CD28- cells. These cells are not present at birth and their frequency increases with age. They frequently contain expanded clones using various TCRalphabeta receptors and these clones can represent >50% of all CD8 cells, specially in old subjects or patients with chronic viral infections such as HIV-1. Herein, it is shown that a large fraction of CD8+ CD28- cells expresses intracellular perforin by three-color flow cytometry, in particular when this subset is expanded. Together with their known ability to exert potent re-directed cytotoxicity, this indicates that CD8+ CD28- T cells comprise cytotoxic effector cells. With BrdU labeling, we show that CD8+ CD28- cells derive from CD8+ CD28+ precursors in vitro. In addition, sorted CD8+ CD28+ cells gave rise to a population of CD8+ CD28- cells after allo-stimulation. Moreover, ex vivo CD8+ CD28+ cells contain the majority of CD8 blasts, supporting the notion that they contain the proliferative precursors of CD8+ CD28- cells. CD95 (Fas) expression was lower in CD8+ CD28- cells, and this subset was less prone to spontaneous apoptosis in ex vivo samples and more resistant to activation-induced cell death induced by a superantigen in vitro. Thus, the persistence of expanded clones in vivo in the CD8+ CD28- subset may be explained by antigen-driven differentiation from CD8+ CD28+ memory precursors, with relative resistance to apoptosis as the clones become perforin(+) effector cells.  (+info)

(3/1206) Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity.

An impressive change in the epidemiology and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infections occurred in the 1980s, and the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome cases continues to rise. The reason for the resurgence of severe invasive cases remains a mystery-has there been a change in the pathogen or in host protective immunity? To address these questions, we have studied 33 patients with invasive infection caused by genotypically indistinguishable M1T1 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes who had different disease outcomes. Patients were classified as having severe (n = 21) and nonsevere (n = 12) invasive infections based on the presence or absence of shock and organ failure. Levels of anti-M1 bactericidal antibodies and of anti-streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in plasma were significantly lower in both groups than in age- and geographically matched healthy controls (P < 0.01). Importantly, the levels of these protective antibodies in plasma samples from severe and nonsevere invasive cases were not different. Together the data suggest that low levels of protective antibodies may contribute to host susceptibility to invasive streptococcal infection but do not modulate disease outcome. Other immunogenetic factors that regulate superantigen responses may influence the severity of systemic manifestations associated with invasive streptococcal infection.  (+info)

(4/1206) Chronic modulation of the TCR repertoire in the lymphoid periphery.

Using TCR V beta 5 transgenic mice as a model system, we demonstrate that the induction of peripheral tolerance can mold the TCR repertoire throughout adult life. In these mice, three distinct populations of peripheral T cells are affected by chronic selective events in the lymphoid periphery. First, CD4+V beta 5+ T cells are deleted in the lymphoid periphery by superantigens encoded by mouse mammary tumor viruses-8 and -9 in an MHC class II-dependent manner. Second, mature CD8+V beta 5+ T cells transit through a CD8lowV beta 5low deletional intermediate during tolerance induction by a process that depends upon neither mouse mammary tumor virus-encoded superantigens nor MHC class II expression. Third, a population of CD4-CD8-V beta 5+ T cells arises in the lymphoid periphery in an age-dependent manner. We analyzed the TCR V alpha repertoire of each of these cellular compartments in both V beta 5 transgenic and nontransgenic C57BL/6 mice as a function of age. This analysis revealed age-related changes in the expression of V alpha families among different cellular compartments, highlighting the dynamic state of the peripheral immune repertoire. Our work indicates that the chronic processes maintaining peripheral T cell tolerance can dramatically shape the available TCR repertoire.  (+info)

(5/1206) Altered ligands reveal limited plasticity in the T cell response to a pathogenic epitope.

Experimental leishmaniasis offers a well characterized model of T helper type 1 cell (Th1)-mediated control of infection by an intracellular organism. Susceptible BALB/c mice aberrantly develop Th2 cells in response to infection and are unable to control parasite dissemination. The early CD4(+) T cell response in these mice is oligoclonal and reflects the expansion of Vbeta4/ Valpha8-bearing T cells in response to a single epitope from the parasite Leishmania homologue of mammalian RACK1 (LACK) antigen. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) generated by these cells is believed to direct the subsequent Th2 response. We used T cells from T cell receptor-transgenic mice expressing such a Vbeta4/Valpha8 receptor to characterize altered peptide ligands with similar affinity for I-Ad. Such altered ligands failed to activate IL-4 production from transgenic LACK-specific T cells or following injection into BALB/c mice. Pretreatment of susceptible mice with altered peptide ligands substantially altered the course of subsequent infection. The ability to confer a healer phenotype on otherwise susceptible mice using altered peptides that differed by a single amino acid suggests limited diversity in the endogenous T cell repertoire recognizing this antigen.  (+info)

(6/1206) Production of antibodies to staphylococcal superantigens in atopic dermatitis.

Staphylococcal superantigens (SAG) are implicated in the inflammation of atopic dermatitis. As SAG mediated diseases may be modified by specific antibodies, the antibody response to SAG in atopic dermatitis was investigated. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) were measured by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 74 children with atopic dermatitis and 111 controls. Controls had detectable IgG to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1, which increased with age. Atopic dermatitis subjects had an increased response to SEB at 6 months to 2 years (76% v 42%) and 2 to 7 years (79% v 57%), and equivalent responses to SEA and TSST-1, compared to controls. It is suggested that increased responses to SEB relate to increased colonisation and hence exposure to superantigen producing staphylococcus in atopic dermatitis, and that inflammation of atopic dermatitis is not caused by an inability to make antibody to SAG.  (+info)

(7/1206) Clinical, microbial, and biochemical aspects of the exfoliative toxins causing staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome.

The exfoliative (epidermolytic) toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are the causative agents of the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), a blistering skin disorder that predominantly affects children. Clinical features of SSSS vary along a spectrum, ranging from a few localized blisters to generalized exfoliation covering almost the entire body. The toxins act specifically at the zona granulosa of the epidermis to produce the characteristic exfoliation, although the mechanism by which this is achieved is still poorly understood. Despite the availability of antibiotics, SSSS carries a significant mortality rate, particularly among neonates with secondary complications of epidermal loss and among adults with underlying diseases. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature spanning more than a century and to cover all aspects of the disease. The epidemiology, clinical features, potential complications, risk factors, susceptibility, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, investigations currently available, treatment options, and preventive measures are all discussed in detail. Recent crystallographic data on the toxins has provided us with a clearer and more defined approach to studying the disease. Understanding their mode of action has important implications in future treatment and prevention of SSSS and other diseases, and knowledge of their specific site of action may provide a useful tool for physiologists, dermatologists, and pharmacologists.  (+info)

(8/1206) Bystander virus infection prolongs activated T cell survival.

In animals, T cells often die rapidly after activation, unless activation occurs in the presence of inflammatory factors. To understand how such activated cells survive to participate in immune responses, we studied the effects of viral infection on T cells responding to an unrelated superantigen. Normal T cells activated by superantigen in uninfected mice died as a result of their activation, whereas T cells that were activated during vaccinia infection survived longer in vivo and in culture. This bystander effect of viral infection on activated T cells was independent of effects on the magnitude of the initial T cell response, on induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, on T cell proliferation, and on Fas killing. The failure of such effects to predict the fate of activated T cells in vivo indicates that virus infections shape T cell responses via mechanisms that differ from those described previously. These mechanisms may contribute to the ability of viral infections to induce autoimmunity.  (+info)