A method for prediction of the locations of linker regions within large multifunctional proteins, and application to a type I polyketide synthase.
Multifunctional proteins often appear to result from fusion of smaller proteins and in such cases typically can be separated into their ancestral components simply by cleaving the linker regions that separate the domains. Though possibly guided by sequence alignment, structural evidence, or light proteolysis, determination of the locations of linker regions remains empirical. We have developed an algorithm, named UMA, to predict the locations of linker regions in multifunctional proteins by quantification of the conservation of several properties within protein families, and the results agree well with structurally characterized proteins. This technique has been applied to a family of fungal type I iterative polyketide synthases (PKS), allowing prediction of the locations of all of the standard PKS domains, as well as two previously unidentified domains. Using these predictions, we report the cloning of the first fragment from the PKS norsolorinic acid synthase, responsible for biosynthesis of the first isolatable intermediate in aflatoxin production. The expression, light proteolysis and catalytic abilities of this acyl carrier protein-thioesterase didomain are discussed. (+info)
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase of Leishmania contains an unusual C-terminal extension and is involved in thioredoxin and antioxidant metabolism.
Cytosolic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferases (EC ) of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana have been cloned, expressed as active enzymes in Escherichia coli, and characterized. The leishmanial single-copy genes predict a sulfurtransferase that is structurally peculiar in possessing a C-terminal domain of some 70 amino acids. Homologous genes of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei encode enzymes with a similar C-terminal domain, suggesting that this feature, not known in any other sulfurtransferase, is a characteristic of trypanosomatid parasites. Short truncations of the C-terminal domain resulted in misfolded inactive proteins, demonstrating that the domain plays some key role in facilitating correct folding of the enzymes. The leishmanial recombinant enzymes exhibited high activity toward 3-mercaptopyruvate and catalyzed the transfer of sulfane sulfur to cyanide to form thiocyanate. They also used thiosulfate as a substrate and reduced thioredoxin as the accepting nucleophile, the latter being oxidized. The enzymes were expressed in all life cycle stages, and the expression level was increased under peroxide or hypo-sulfur stress. The results are consistent with the enzymes having an involvement in the synthesis of sulfur amino acids per se or iron-sulfur centers of proteins and the parasite's management of oxidative stress. (+info)
Specificity of respiratory pathways involved in the reduction of sulfur compounds by Salmonella enterica.
The tetrathionate (Ttr) and thiosulfate (Phs) reductases of Salmonella enterica LT2, together with the polysulfide reductase (Psr) of Wolinella succinogenes, are unusual examples of enzymes containing a molybdopterin active-site cofactor since all formally catalyse sulfur-sulfur bond cleavage. This is in contrast to the oxygen or hydrogen transfer reactions exhibited by other molybdopterin enzymes. Here the catalytic specificity of Ttr and Phs has been compared using both physiological and synthetic electron-donor systems. Ttr is shown to catalyse reduction of trithionate but not sulfur or thiosulfate. In contrast, Phs cannot reduce tetrathionate or trithionate but allows whole cells to utilize elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor. Mechanisms are proposed by which the bacterium is able to utilize an insoluble sulfur substrate by means of reactions at the cytoplasmic rather than the outer membrane. (+info)
The PLP-dependent biotin synthase from Escherichia coli: mechanistic studies.
Biotin synthase (BioB), an iron-sulfur enzyme, catalyzes the last step of the biotin biosynthesis pathway. The reaction consists in the introduction of a sulfur atom into two non-activated C-H bonds of dethiobiotin. Substrate radical activation is initiated by the reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) into a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. The recently described pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-bound enzyme was used to show that only one molecule of AdoMet, and not two, is required for the formation of one molecule of biotin. Furthermore 5'-deoxyadenosine, a product of the reaction, strongly inhibited biotin formation, an observation that may explain why BioB is not able to make more than one turnover. However this enzyme inactivation is not irreversible. (+info)
Mechanism and specificity of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase.
(a) The reactivity of substituted acetates as substrates for CoA transferase increases sharply with increasing basicity and exhibits a slope of 1.0 in a plot of either log kappacat or log (kappacat/Km) against pKa (betanuc = 1.0). This result shows that the catalyzed reaction, which involves both carboxylate activation and leaving group transfer, does not proceed through a fully concerted reaction mechanism in the rate-determining step. The result is consistent with a stepwise reaction mechanism that proceeds through an anhydride intermediate. (b) Equilibrium constants for thiol ester formation, either bound to the enzyme or free in solution, show the same dependence on the basicity of carboxylate ions (betaeq = 1.0) and are independent of acidity when expressed in terms of the carboxylic acid. Thus, the polar environment around substituents on the acyl group is the same for carboxylic acids, thiol esters, and oxygen esters. (c) The interaction of the terminal CH3CO group of acetoacetate with the active site causes a 200,000-fold increase in kappacat/Km, corresponding to a decrease in delta G++ OF 7.2 kcal/mol compared with an unsubstituted acid of the same pK. The binding energy of the coenzyme A moiety of the substrate is utilized to interact with the active site and cause a 10(4) to 10(6)-fold increase in kappacat, corresponding to a decrease in delta G++ of 6 to 9 kcal/mol, compared with fragments of the coenzyme A moiety added separatly or together. (d) The exchange of labeled coenzyme A into acyl-CoA substrates was found to be greater than or equal to 10(5) slower than substrate turnover. (+info)
Utilization of the inactivation rate of coenzyme A transferase by thiol reagents to determine properties of the enzyme-CoA intermediate.
The rate of inactivation of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase by thiol reagents is increased 3 to 100 times by very low concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates. The same maximum inactivation rate is found with acetoacetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. The enhanced rate of inactivation is caused by the stoichiometric formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate and an accompanying conformation change of the enzyme. The inactivation rate provides a simple assay for the amount of enzyme present as the enzyme-CoA intermediate, using only catalytic concentrations of enzyme. This technique has been utilized to measure (a) a rate constant for hydrolysis of the enzyme-CoA intermediate of 0.10 min-1 at pH 8.1; (b) a stoichiometry of two active sites per enzyme molecule; and (c) the equilibrium constants for formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate from dilute solutions of substrates (and hence for the overall reaction) by determining the ratio of [enzyme-CoA]/[enzyme] in the presence of a series of substrate "buffers" at different ratios of [RCOO-]/[RCOSCoA]. As the total concentration of acyl-CoA and carbosylate substrates is increased, the inactivation rate is decreased. This indicates that the Michaelis complexes are protected against inactivation. (+info)
Mechanistic and mutational studies of Escherichia coli molybdopterin synthase clarify the final step of molybdopterin biosynthesis.
Biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor, a chelate of molybdenum or tungsten with a novel pterin, occurs in virtually all organisms including humans. In the cofactor, the metal is complexed to the unique cis-dithiolene moiety located on the pyran ring of molybdopterin. Escherichia coli molybdopterin synthase, the protein responsible for adding the dithiolene to a desulfo precursor termed precursor Z, is a dimer of dimers containing the MoaD and MoaE proteins. The sulfur used for dithiolene formation is carried in the form of a thiocarboxylate at the MoaD C terminus. Using an intein expression system for preparation of thiocarboxylated MoaD, the mechanism of the molybdopterin synthase reaction was examined. A stoichiometry of 2 molecules of thiocarboxylated MoaD per conversion of a single precursor Z molecule to molybdopterin was observed. Examination of several synthase variants bearing mutations in the MoaE subunit identified Lys-119 as a residue essential for activity and Arg-39 and Lys-126 as other residues critical for the reaction. An intermediate of the synthase reaction was identified and characterized. This intermediate remains tightly associated with the protein and is the predominant product formed by synthase containing the K126A variant of MoaE. Mass spectral data obtained from protein-bound intermediate are consistent with a monosulfurated structure that contains a terminal phosphate group similar to that present in molybdopterin. (+info)
Structural studies of molybdopterin synthase provide insights into its catalytic mechanism.
Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis is an evolutionarily conserved pathway present in eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans. Genetic deficiencies of enzymes involved in cofactor biosynthesis in humans lead to a severe and usually fatal disease. The molybdenum cofactor contains a tricyclic pyranopterin, termed molybdopterin, that bears the cis-dithiolene group responsible for molybdenum ligation. The dithiolene group of molybdopterin is generated by molybdopterin synthase, which consists of a large (MoaE) and small (MoaD) subunit. The crystal structure of molybdopterin synthase revealed a heterotetrameric enzyme in which the C terminus of each MoaD subunit is deeply inserted into a MoaE subunit to form the active site. In the activated form of the enzyme, the MoaD C terminus is present as a thiocarboxylate. The present study identified the position of the thiocarboxylate sulfur by exploiting the anomalous signal originating from the sulfur atom. The structure of molybdopterin synthase in a novel crystal form revealed a binding pocket for the terminal phosphate of molybdopterin, the product of the enzyme, and suggested a binding site for the pterin moiety present in precursor Z and molybdopterin. Finally, the crystal structure of the MoaE homodimer provides insights into the conformational changes accompanying binding of the MoaD subunit. (+info)