A sulfurtransferase is required in the transfer of cysteine sulfur in the in vitro synthesis of molybdopterin from precursor Z in Escherichia coli.
It has been shown that conversion of precursor Z to molybdopterin (MPT) by Escherichia coli MPT synthase entails the transfer of the sulfur atom of the C-terminal thiocarboxylate from the small subunit of the synthase to generate the dithiolene group of MPT and that the moeB mutant of E. coli contains inactive MPT synthase devoid of the thiocarboxylate. The data presented here demonstrate that l-cysteine can serve as the source of the sulfur for the biosynthesis of MPT in vitro but only in the presence of a persulfide-containing sulfurtransferase such as IscS, cysteine sulfinate desulfinase (CSD), or CsdB. A fully defined in vitro system has been developed in which an inactive form of MPT synthase can be activated by incubation with MoeB, Mg-ATP, l-cysteine, and one of the NifS-like sulfurtransferases, and the addition of precursor Z to the in vitro system gives rise to MPT formation. The use of radiolabeled l-[(35)S]cysteine has demonstrated that both sulfurs of the dithiolene group of MPT originate from l-cysteine. It was found that MPT can be produced from precursor Z in an E. coli iscS mutant strain, indicating that IscS is not required for the in vivo sulfuration of MPT synthase. A comparison of the ability of the three sulfurtransferases to provide the sulfur for MPT formation showed the highest activity for CSD in the in vitro system. (+info)
Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human beta-Gal-3-O-sulfotransferase that acts preferentially on N-acetyllactosamine in N- and O-glycans.
A novel cDNA-encoding galactose 3-O-sulfotransferase was cloned by screening the expressed sequence tag data base using the previously cloned cDNA encoding a galactosyl ceramide 3-O-sulfotransferase, which we term Gal3ST-1. The newly isolated cDNA encodes a novel 3-O-sulfotransferase, termed Gal3ST-3, that acts exclusively on N-acetyllactosamine present in N-glycans and core2-branched O-glycans. These conclusions were confirmed by analyzing CD43 chimeric proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing core2 beta1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. The acceptor specificity of Gal3ST-3 contrasts with that of the recently cloned galactose 3-O-sulfotransferase (Honke, K., Tsuda, M., Koyota, S., Wada, Y., Iida-Tanaka, N., Ishizuka, I., Nakayama, J., and Taniguchi, N. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 267-274), which we term Gal3ST-2 in the present study because the latter enzyme can also act on core1 O-glycan and type 1 oligosaccharides, Galbeta1-->3GlcNAc. Moreover, Gal3ST-3 but not Gal3ST-2 can act on Galbeta1-->4(sulfo-->6)GlcNAc, indicating that disulfated sulfo-->3Galbeta1-->4(sulfo-->6) GlcNAc-->R may be formed by Gal3ST-3 in combination with GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase. Although both Gal3ST-2 and Gal3ST-3 do not act on galactosyl ceramide, Gal3ST-3 is only moderately more homologous to Gal3ST-2 (40.1%) than to Gal3ST-1 (38.0%) at the amino acid level. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that transcripts for Gal3ST-3 are predominantly expressed in the brain, kidney, and thyroid where the presence of 3'-sulfation of N-acetyllactosamine has been reported. These results indicate that the newly cloned Gal3ST-3 plays a critical role in 3'-sulfation of N-acetyllactosamine in both O- and N-glycans. (+info)
Do mammalian cells synthesize lipoic acid? Identification of a mouse cDNA encoding a lipoic acid synthase located in mitochondria.
Lipoic acid is a coenzyme essential to the activity of enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, which play important roles in central metabolism. However, neither the enzymes responsible for biosynthesis nor the biosynthetic event of lipoic acid has been reported in mammalian cells. In this study, a mouse mLIP1 cDNA for lipoic acid synthase has been identified. We have shown that the cDNA encodes a lipoic acid synthase by its ability to complement a mutant of Escherichia coli defective in lipoic acid synthase and that mLIP1 is targeted into the mitochondria. These findings suggest that mammalian cells are able to synthesize lipoic acid in mitochondria. (+info)
The role of the cysteine residues of ThiI in the generation of 4-thiouridine in tRNA.
The enzyme ThiI is common to the biosynthetic pathways leading to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine in tRNA. We earlier noted the presence of a motif shared with sulfurtransferases, and we reported that the cysteine residue (Cys-456 of Escherichia coli ThiI) found in this motif is essential for activity (Palenchar, P. M., Buck, C. J., Cheng, H., Larson, T. J., and Mueller, E. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8283-8286). In light of that finding and the report of the involvement of the protein IscS in the reaction (Kambampati, R., and Lauhon, C. T. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 16561-16568), we proposed two mechanisms for the sulfur transfer mediated by ThiI, and both suggested possible involvement of the thiol group of another cysteine residue in ThiI. We have now substituted each of the cysteine residues with alanine and characterized the effect on activity in vivo and in vitro. Cys-108 and Cys-202 were converted to alanine with no significant effect on ThiI activity, and C207A ThiI was only mildly impaired. Substitution of Cys-344, the only cysteine residue conserved among all sequenced ThiI, resulted in the loss of function in vivo and a 2700-fold reduction in activity measured in vitro. We also examined the possibility that ThiI contains an iron-sulfur cluster or disulfide bonds in the resting state, and we found no evidence to support the presence of either species. We propose that Cys-344 forms a disulfide bond with Cys-456 during turnover, and we present evidence that a disulfide bond can form between these two residues in native ThiI and that disulfide bonds do form in ThiI during turnover. We also discuss the relevance of these findings to the biosynthesis of thiamin and iron-sulfur clusters. (+info)
Biotin synthase contains two distinct iron-sulfur cluster binding sites: chemical and spectroelectrochemical analysis of iron-sulfur cluster interconversions.
Biotin synthase is an iron-sulfur protein that utilizes AdoMet to catalyze the presumed radical-mediated insertion of a sulfur atom between the saturated C6 and C9 carbons of dethiobiotin. Biotin synthase (BioB) is aerobically purified as a dimer that contains [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters and is inactive in the absence of additional iron and reductants, and anaerobic reduction of BioB with sodium dithionite results in conversion to enzyme containing [4Fe-4S](2+) and/or [4Fe-4S](+) clusters. To establish the predominant cluster forms present in biotin synthase in anaerobic assays, and by inference in Escherichia coli, we have accurately determined the extinction coefficient and cluster content of the enzyme under oxidized and reduced conditions and have examined the equilibrium reduction potentials at which cluster reductions and conversions occur as monitored by UV/visible and EPR spectroscopy. In contrast to previous reports, we find that aerobically purified BioB contains ca. 1.2-1.5 [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters per monomer with epsilon(452) = 8400 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1) per monomer. Upon reduction, the [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters are converted to [4Fe-4S] clusters with two widely separate reduction potentials of -140 and -430 mV. BioB reconstituted with excess iron and sulfide in 60% ethylene glycol was found to contain two [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters per monomer with epsilon(400) = 30 000 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1) per monomer and is reduced with lower midpoint potentials of -440 and -505 mV, respectively. Finally, as predicted by the measured redox potentials, enzyme incubated under typical anaerobic assay conditions is repurified containing one [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster and one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster per monomer. These results indicate that the dominant stable cluster state for biotin synthase is a dimer containing two [2Fe-2S](2+) and two [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters. (+info)
Spectroscopic changes during a single turnover of biotin synthase: destruction of a [2Fe-2S] cluster accompanies sulfur insertion.
Biotin synthase catalyzes the insertion of a sulfur atom between the saturated C6 and C9 carbons of dethiobiotin. Catalysis requires AdoMet and flavodoxin and generates 5'-deoxyadenosine and methionine, suggesting that biotin synthase is an AdoMet-dependent radical enzyme. Biotin synthase (BioB) is aerobically purified as a dimer of 38.4 kDa monomers that contains 1-1.5 [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters per monomer and can be reconstituted with exogenous iron, sulfide, and reductants to contain up to two [4Fe-4S] clusters per monomer. The iron-sulfur clusters may play a dual role in biotin synthase: a reduced iron-sulfur cluster is probably involved in radical generation by mediating the reductive cleavage of AdoMet, while recent in vitro labeling studies suggest that an iron-sulfur cluster also serves as the immediate source of sulfur for the biotin thioether ring. Consistent with this dual role for iron-sulfur clusters in biotin synthase, we have found that the protein is stable, containing one [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster and one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster per monomer. In the present study, we demonstrate that this mixed cluster state is essential for optimal activity. We follow changes in the Fe and S content and UV/visible and EPR spectra of the enzyme during a single turnover and conclude that during catalysis the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster is preserved while the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster is destroyed. We propose a mechanism for incorporation of sulfur into dethiobiotin in which a sulfur atom is oxidatively extracted from the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster. (+info)
Properties of the Escherichia coli rhodanese-like protein SseA: contribution of the active-site residue Ser240 to sulfur donor recognition.
The product of Escherichia coli sseA gene (SseA) was the subject of the present investigation aimed to provide a tool for functional classification of the bacterial proteins of the rhodanese family. E. coli SseA contains the motif CGSGVTA around the catalytic cysteine (Cys238). In eukaryotic sulfurtransferases this motif discriminates for 3-mercaptopyruvate:cyanide sulfurtransferase over thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferases (rhodanese). The biochemical characterization of E. coli SseA allowed the identification of the first prokaryotic protein with a preference for 3-mercaptopyruvate as donor substrate. Replacement of Ser240 with Ala showed that the presence of a hydrophobic residue did not affect the binding of 3-mercaptopyruvate, but strongly prevented thiosulfate binding. On the contrary, substitution of Ser240 with an ionizable residue (Lys) increased the affinity for thiosulfate. (+info)
Thiocarboxylation of molybdopterin synthase provides evidence for the mechanism of dithiolene formation in metal-binding pterins.
Molybdopterin (MPT) is a pyranopterin with a unique dithiolene group coordinating molybdenum (Mo) or tungsten (W) in all Mo- and W-enzymes except nitrogenase. In Escherichia coli, MPT is formed by incorporation of two sulfur atoms into precursor Z, which is catalyzed by MPT synthase. The recently solved crystal structure of MPT synthase (Rudolph, M. J., Wuebbens, M. M., Rajagopalan, K. V., and Schindelin, H. (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 42-46) shows the heterotetrameric nature of the enzyme that is composed of two small (MoaD) and two large subunits (MoaE). According to sequence and structural similarities among MoaD, ubiquitin, and ThiS, a thiocarboxylation of the C terminus of MoaD is proposed that would serve as the source of sulfur that is transferred to precursor Z. Here, we describe the in vitro generation of carboxylated and thiocarboxylated MoaD. Both forms of MoaD are monomeric and are able to form a heterotetrameric complex after coincubation in equimolar ratios with MoaE. Only the thiocarboxylated MPT synthase complex was found to be able to convert precursor Z in vitro to MPT. Slight but significant differences between the carboxylated and the thiocarboxylated MPT synthase can be seen using size exclusion chromatography. A two-step reaction of MPT synthesis is proposed where the dithiolene is generated by two thiocarboxylates derived from a single tetrameric MPT synthase. (+info)