Human extracellular water volume can be measured using the stable isotope Na234SO4.
The volume of human extracellular water (ECW) may be estimated from the sulfate space (SS). Although it may better approximate ECW volume than the bromide space, a common alternative, SS measurement is limited by the need to administer a radioactive substance, sodium [35S]sulfate. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement of the SS using the stable isotope, sodium [34S]sulfate. Eight healthy nonobese men ingested 0.50-0.78 mg (3.47-5.42 micromol) Na234SO4/kg body weight and 30 mg NaBr/kg body weight. Sulfate concentrations and 34SO4 enrichments were measured by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry before and during the 5 h after tracer administration. SS was calculated by linear extrapolation of the natural logarithm of serum 34SO4 concentrations obtained at h 2, 3 and 4 compared with h 3, 4 and 5. The SS obtained using values between h 3 and 5 (187 +/- 17 mL/kg) was similar to published determinations using intravenous or oral radiosulfate, and was 80% of the simultaneously measured corrected bromide space (234 +/- 10 mL/kg, P = 0.01). Oral sodium [34S]sulfate administration is a suitable technique for measuring ECW and avoids radiation exposure. (+info)
Specific binding sites for an antifungal plant defensin from Dahlia (Dahlia merckii) on fungal cells are required for antifungal activity.
Dm-AMP1, an antifungal plant defensin from seeds of dahlia (Dahlia merckii), was radioactively labeled with t-butoxycarbonyl-[35S]-L-methionine N-hydroxy-succinimi-dylester. This procedure yielded a 35S-labeled peptide with unaltered antifungal activity. [35S]Dm-AMP1 was used to assess binding on living cells of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and the unicellular fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Binding of [35S]Dm-AMP1 to fungal cells was saturable and could be competed for by preincubation with excess, unlabeled Dm-AMP1 as well as with Ah-AMP1 and Ct-AMP1, two plant defensins that are highly homologous to Dm-AMP1. In contrast, binding could not be competed for by more distantly related plant defensins or structurally unrelated antimicrobial peptides. Binding of [35S]Dm-AMP1 to either N. crassa or S. cerevisiae cells was apparently irreversible. In addition, whole cells and microsomal membrane fractions from two independently obtained S. cerevisiae mutants selected for resistance to Dm-AMP1 exhibited severely reduced binding affinity for [35S]Dm-AMP1, compared with wild-type yeast. This finding suggests that binding of Dm-AMP1 to S. cerevisiae plasma membranes is required for antifungal activity of this protein. (+info)
The Archean sulfur cycle and the early history of atmospheric oxygen.
The isotope record of sedimentary sulfides can help resolve the history of oxygen accumulation into the atmosphere. We measured sulfur isotopic fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction up to 88 degrees C and show how sulfate reduction rate influences the preservation of biological fractionations in sediments. The sedimentary sulfur isotope record suggests low concentrations of seawater sulfate and atmospheric oxygen in the early Archean (3.4 to 2.8 billion years ago). The accumulation of oxygen and sulfate began later, in the early Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.54 billion years ago). (+info)
Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.
Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation. Sulfate reducers that oxidized the carbon source completely to CO2 showed greater fractionations than sulfate reducers that released acetate as the final product of carbon oxidation. Different metabolic pathways and variable regulation of sulfate transport across the cell membrane all potentially affect isotope fractionation. Previous models that explained fractionation only in terms of sulfate reduction rates appear to be oversimplified. The species-specific physiology of each sulfate reducer thus needs to be taken into account to understand the regulation of sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction. (+info)
Antiquity of the biological sulphur cycle: evidence from sulphur and carbon isotopes in 2700 million-year-old rocks of the Belingwe Belt, Zimbabwe.
Sulphur and carbon isotopic analyses on small samples of kerogens and sulphide minerals from biogenic and non-biogenic sediments of the 2.7 x 10(9) years(Ga)-old Belingwe Greenstone Belt (Zimbabwe) imply that a complex biological sulphur cycle was in operation. Sulphur isotopic compositions display a wider range of biological fractionation than hitherto reported from the Archaean. Carbon isotopic values in kerogen record fractionations characteristic of rubisco activity methanogenesis and methylotrophy and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Carbon and sulphur isotopic fractionations have been interpreted in terms of metabolic processes in 2.7 Ga prokaryote mat communities, and indicate the operation of a diverse array of metabolic processes. The results are consistent with models of early molecular evolution derived from ribosomal RNA. (+info)
Use of sulfate production as a measure of short-term sulfur amino acid catabolism in humans.
There is no fully satisfactory method for measuring amino acid catabolism in the nonsteady state that follows normal protein consumption. Because sulfate is the major product of sulfur amino acid catabolism, we tested whether its production can be accurately depicted using simple tracer or nontracer approaches under basal conditions and after the intravenous administration of a known amount of sulfate. In the basal postabsorptive state, serum sulfate concentration and urinary sulfate excretion remained constant for many hours, but the apparent steady-state serum sulfate rate of appearance achieved with primed continuous oral administration of sodium [(34)S]sulfate was 20% higher than urinary sulfate excretion. By contrast, after magnesium sulfate infusion, the increase in sulfate production above basal accounted for 95% over 6 h and 98% over 9 h of the administered dose when measured simply as urinary inorganic sulfate excretion corrected for changes in its extracellular fluid content. Using the latter method, we measured sulfate production after oral methionine and intravenous infusion of methionine in a mixture of other essential amino acids. Sulfate production above basal accounted for 59% over 6 h and 75% over 9 h of the oral methionine dose. Similar results were obtained with the mixed amino acid infusion, but interpretation of the latter experiment was limited by the mild protein sparing (and, hence, reduced endogenous sulfate production) induced by the amino acid infusion. We conclude that a simple nontracer method can provide an accurate measure of sulfate production and, hence, sulfur amino acid catabolism over collection periods as short as 6 h after a test meal. A significant portion of the sulfur derived from methionine appears to be retained in nonprotein compounds immediately after its ingestion. (+info)
34S/32S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria.
Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light 32S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor epsilon = -7.2 and -1.7%, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy 34S isotope in products (epsilon = +1.7%). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in 34S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments. (+info)
Discovery of sulfated metabolites in mycobacteria with a genetic and mass spectrometric approach.
The study of the metabolome presents numerous challenges, first among them being the cataloging of its constituents. A step in this direction will be the development of tools to identify metabolites that share common structural features. The importance of sulfated molecules in cell-cell communication motivated us to develop a rapid two-step method for identifying these metabolites in microorganisms, particularly in pathogenic mycobacteria. Sulfurcontaining molecules were initially identified by mass spectral analysis of cell extracts from bacteria labeled metabolically with a stable sulfur isotope (34SO 4 2-). To differentiate sulfated from reduced-sulfur-containing molecules, we employed a mutant lacking the reductive branch of the sulfate assimilation pathway. In these sulfur auxotrophs, heavy sulfate is channeled exclusively into sulfated metabolites. The method was applied to the discovery of several new sulfated molecules in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Because a sulfur auxotrophic strain is the only requirement of the approach, many microorganisms can be studied in this manner. Such genetic engineering in combination with stable isotopic labeling can be applied to various metabolic pathways and their products. (+info)