IPD-1151T (suplatast tosilate) inhibits interleukin (IL)-13 release but not IL-4 release from basophils.
The effect of suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T), which is known to suppress interleukin (IL)-4 release from T cells, on the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from human peripheral basophils was investigated. Basophils were obtained from 16 mite-sensitive atopic asthmatic patients. IPD-1151T clearly inhibited the antigen-induced release of IL-13 but not IL-4. These results suggest that IPD-1151T possesses different activity for the regulation of cytokine release in basophils and T cells. (+info)
Nanomolar levels of dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfonioacetate, and glycine betaine are sufficient to confer osmoprotection to Escherichia coli.
We combined the use of low inoculation titers (300 +/- 100 CFU/ml) and enumeration of culturable cells to measure the osmoprotective potentialities of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dimethylsulfonioacetate (DMSA), and glycine betaine (GB) for salt-stressed cultures of Escherichia coli. Dilute bacterial cultures were grown with osmoprotectant concentrations that encompassed the nanomolar levels of GB and DMSP found in nature and the millimolar levels of osmoprotectants used in standard laboratory osmoprotection bioassays. Nanomolar concentrations of DMSA, DMSP, and GB were sufficient to enhance the salinity tolerance of E. coli cells expressing only the ProU high-affinity general osmoporter. In contrast, nanomolar levels of osmoprotectants were ineffective with a mutant strain (GM50) that expressed only the low-affinity ProP osmoporter. Transport studies showed that DMSA and DMSP, like GB, were taken up via both ProU and ProP. Moreover, ProU displayed higher affinities for the three osmoprotectants than ProP displayed, and ProP, like ProU, displayed much higher affinities for GB and DMSA than for DMSP. Interestingly, ProP did not operate at substrate concentrations of 200 nM or less, whereas ProU operated at concentrations ranging from 1 nM to millimolar levels. Consequently, proU(+) strains of E. coli, but not the proP(+) strain GM50, could also scavenge nanomolar levels of GB, DMSA, and DMSP from oligotrophic seawater. The physiological and ecological implications of these observations are discussed. (+info)
Transformation of sulfur compounds by an abundant lineage of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria.
Members of a group of marine bacteria that is numerically important in coastal seawater and sediments were characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Fifteen strains representing the Roseobacter group (a phylogenetic cluster of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria) were isolated from seawater, primarily from the southeastern United States. Although more than one-half of the isolates were obtained without any selection for sulfur metabolism, all of the isolates were able to degrade the sulfur-containing osmolyte dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) with production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Five isolates also degraded DMSP with production of methanethiol, indicating that both cleavage and demethylation pathways for DMSP occurred in the same organism, which is unusual. Five isolates were able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide to DMS, and several isolates also degraded DMS and methanethiol. Sulfite oxygenase activity and methanesulfonic acid oxygenase activity were also present in some of the isolates. The ability to incorporate the reduced sulfur in DMSP and methanethiol into cellular material was studied with one of the isolates. A group-specific 16S rRNA probe indicated that the relative abundance of uncultured bacteria in the Roseobacter group increased in seawater enriched with DMSP or DMS. Because this group typically accounts for >10% of the 16S ribosomal DNA pool in coastal seawater and sediments of the southern United States, clues about its potential biogeochemical role are of particular interest. Studies of culturable representatives suggested that the group could mediate a number of steps in the cycling of both organic and inorganic forms of sulfur in marine environments. (+info)
The sulfonium ion linkage in myeloperoxidase. Direct spectroscopic detection by isotopic labeling and effect of mutation.
The heme group of myeloperoxidase is covalently linked via two ester bonds to the protein and a unique sulfonium ion linkage involving Met(243). Mutation of Met(243) into Thr, Gln, and Val, which are the corresponding residues of eosinophil peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, and thyroid peroxidase, respectively, and into Cys was performed. The Soret band in the optical absorbance spectrum in the oxidized mutants is now found at approximately 411 nm. Both the pyridine hemochrome spectra and resonance Raman spectra of the mutants are affected by the mutation. In the Met(243) mutants the affinity for chloride has decreased 100-fold. All mutants have lost their chlorination activity, except for the M243T mutant, which still has 15% activity left. By Fourier transform infared difference spectroscopy it was possible to specifically detect the (13)CD(3)-labeled methionyl sulfonium ion linkage. We conclude that the sulfonium ion linkage serves two roles. First, it serves as an electron-withdrawing substituent via its positive charge, and, second, together with its neighboring residue Glu(242), it appears to be responsible for the lower symmetry of the heme group and distortion from the planar conformation normally seen in heme-containing proteins. (+info)
Transport of sulfonium compounds. Characterization of the s-adenosylmethionine and s-methylmethionine permeases from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
We report here the characterization and the molecular analysis of the two high affinity permeases that mediate the transport of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-methylmethionine (SMM) across the plasma membrane of yeast cells. Mutant cells unable to use AdoMet as a sulfur source were first isolated and demonstrated to lack high affinity AdoMet transport capacities. Functional complementation cloning allowed us to identify the corresponding gene (SAM3), which encodes an integral membrane protein comprising 12 putative membrane spanning regions and belonging to the amino acid permease family. Among amino acid permease members, the closest relative of Sam3p is encoded by the YLL061w open reading frame. Disruption of YLL061w was shown to specifically lead to cells unable to use SMM as a sulfur source. Accordingly, transport assays demonstrated that YLL061w disruption mutation impaired the high affinity SMM permease, and YLL061w was therefore renamed MMP1. Further study of sam3Delta and mmp1Delta mutant cells showed that in addition to high affinity permeases, both sulfonium compounds are transported into yeast cells by low affinity transport systems that appear to be carrier-facilitated diffusion. (+info)
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate and methanethiol are important precursors of methionine and protein-sulfur in marine bacterioplankton.
Organic sulfur compounds are present in all aquatic systems, but their use as sources of sulfur for bacteria is generally not considered important because of the high sulfate concentrations in natural waters. This study investigated whether dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an algal osmolyte that is abundant and rapidly cycled in seawater, is used as a source of sulfur by bacterioplankton. Natural populations of bacterioplankton from subtropical and temperate marine waters rapidly incorporated 15 to 40% of the sulfur from tracer-level additions of [(35)S]DMSP into a macromolecule fraction. Tests with proteinase K and chloramphenicol showed that the sulfur from DMSP was incorporated into proteins, and analysis of protein hydrolysis products by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that methionine was the major labeled amino acid produced from [(35)S]DMSP. Bacterial strains isolated from coastal seawater and belonging to the alpha-subdivision of the division Proteobacteria incorporated DMSP sulfur into protein only if they were capable of degrading DMSP to methanethiol (MeSH), whereas MeSH was rapidly incorporated into macromolecules by all tested strains and by natural bacterioplankton. These findings indicate that the demethylation/demethiolation pathway of DMSP degradation is important for sulfur assimilation and that MeSH is a key intermediate in the pathway leading to protein sulfur. Incorporation of sulfur from DMSP and MeSH by natural populations was inhibited by nanomolar levels of other reduced sulfur compounds including sulfide, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, and cystathionine. In addition, propargylglycine and vinylglycine were potent inhibitors of incorporation of sulfur from DMSP and MeSH, suggesting involvement of the enzyme cystathionine gamma-synthetase in sulfur assimilation by natural populations. Experiments with [methyl-(3)H]MeSH and [(35)S]MeSH showed that the entire methiol group of MeSH was efficiently incorporated into methionine, a reaction consistent with activity of cystathionine gamma-synthetase. Field data from the Gulf of Mexico indicated that natural turnover of DMSP supplied a major fraction of the sulfur required for bacterial growth in surface waters. Our study highlights a remarkable adaptation by marine bacteria: they exploit nanomolar levels of reduced sulfur in apparent preference to sulfate, which is present at 10(6)- to 10(7)-fold higher concentrations. (+info)
Metabolism of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A.
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is degraded to dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate by the enzyme DMSP lyase. DMS or acrylate can serve as a carbon source for both free-living and endophytic bacteria in the marine environment. In this study, we report on the mechanism of DMSP-acrylate metabolism by Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. Suspensions of citrate-grown cells expressed a low level of DMSP lyase activity that could be induced to much higher levels in the presence of DMSP, acrylate, and its metabolic product, beta-hydroxypropionate. DMSP was degraded outside the cell, resulting in an extracellular accumulation of acrylate, which in suspensions of citrate-grown cells was then metabolized at a low endogenous rate. The inducible nature of acrylate metabolism was evidenced by both an increase in the rate of its degradation over time and the ability of acrylate-grown cells to metabolize this molecule at about an eight times higher rate than citrate-grown cells. Therefore, acrylate induces both its production (from DMSP) and its degradation by an acrylase enzyme. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to identify the products resulting from [1-(13)C]acrylate metabolism. The results indicated that A. faecalis first metabolized acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate outside the cell, which was followed by its intracellular accumulation and subsequent induction of DMSP lyase activity. In summary, the mechanism of DMSP degradation to acrylate and the subsequent degradation of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate in the aerobic beta-Proteobacterium A. faecalis has been described. (+info)
Sulfonium salts as derivatizing agents. 3. Quantitation of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in urine using gas chromatography with ion-pair extraction/on-column alkylation.
Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of quantitative assays for benzoylecgonine in assessing the efficacy of cocaine-dependence-treatment programs to determine if the amount of cocaine consumed has been reduced. We describe a simple gas chromatographic method for determining benzoylecgonine concentrations in urine. BZE is extracted from urine as an ion pair with tri-n-propylsulfonium ion. Injection into the heated injection port of the gas chromatograph results in thermal conversion of the ion pair to the n-propyl ester of BZE. Using the structural analogue of BZE, m-toluylecgonine, as the internal standard, the analysis is carried out on a (5% phenyl)methylpolysiloxane capillary column with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. There was a good correlation between BZE concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and concentrations determined by the method described in this paper. Application to cocaine-dependence-treatment programs is discussed. (+info)