(1/349) Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli.
1,2-Propanediol (1,2-PD) is a major commodity chemical that is currently derived from propylene, a nonrenewable resource. A goal of our research is to develop fermentation routes to 1,2-PD from renewable resources. Here we report the production of enantiomerically pure R-1,2-PD from glucose in Escherichia coli expressing NADH-linked glycerol dehydrogenase genes (E. coli gldA or Klebsiella pneumoniae dhaD). We also show that E. coli overexpressing the E. coli methylglyoxal synthase gene (mgs) produced 1,2-PD. The expression of either glycerol dehydrogenase or methylglyoxal synthase resulted in the anaerobic production of approximately 0.25 g of 1,2-PD per liter. R-1,2-PD production was further improved to 0.7 g of 1,2-PD per liter when methylglyoxal synthase and glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA) were coexpressed. In vitro studies indicated that the route to R-1,2-PD involved the reduction of methylglyoxal to R-lactaldehyde by the recombinant glycerol dehydrogenase and the reduction of R-lactaldehyde to R-1, 2-PD by a native E. coli activity. We expect that R-1,2-PD production can be significantly improved through further metabolic and bioprocess engineering. (+info)
(2/349) Polyol formation and NADPH-dependent reductases in dog retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells.
PURPOSE: Dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose experience retinal vascular changes similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy, with selective pericyte loss as an initial lesion. In the present study the relationship among reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reductases, polyol formation, and flux through the polyol pathway in cultured dog retinal capillary cells were investigated. METHODS: Pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured from retina of beagle dogs. NADPH-dependent reductases were characterized by chromatofocusing after gel filtration. Sugars in cultured cells were analyzed by gas chromatography, and flux through the polyol pathway was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as a substrate. The presence of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in these cells was examined by northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct peaks corresponding to aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase, the latter being dominant, were observed in pericytes by chromatofocusing. Culture in medium containing either 10 mM D-galactose or 30 mM D-glucose resulted in the accumulation of sugar alcohol in pericytes that was markedly reduced by aldose reductase inhibitors. 19F NMR spectra obtained from pericytes cultured for 5 days in medium containing 2 mM 3FG displayed the marked accumulation of 3-fluoro-deoxysorbitol but not 3-fluoro-deoxyfructose. No 3FG metabolism was observed in similarly cultured endothelial cells. With northern blot analysis, aldose reductase was detected in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was below the detectable limit in pericytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Aldose, aldehyde, and glyceraldehyde reductases are present in dog retinal capillary pericytes, with aldehyde reductase being the major reductase present. Polyol accumulation easily occurs in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. (+info)
(3/349) A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose.
The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. (+info)
(4/349) Identification of the yqhE and yafB genes encoding two 2, 5-diketo-D-gluconate reductases in Escherichia coli.
The identification of a gene (yiaE) encoding 2-ketoaldonate reductase (2KR) in our previous work led to the hypothesis that Escherichia coli has other ketogluconate reductases including 2, 5-diketo-D-gluconate reductase (25DKGR) and to study of the related ketogluconate metabolism. By using the deduced amino acid sequences of 5-diketo-D-gluconate reductase (5KDGR) of Gluconobacter oxydans and 25DKGR of Corynebacterium sp., protein databases were screened to detect homologous proteins. Among the proteins of E. coli, an oxidoreductase encoded by yjgU and having 56% similarity to 5KDGR of G. oxydans and two hypothetical oxidoreductases encoded by yqhE and yafB and having 49.8 and 42% similarity, respectively, to 25DKGR of Corynebacterium sp. were detected. Recently, the yjgU gene was identified as encoding 5KDGR and renamed idnO (C. Bausch, N. Peekhaus, C. Utz, T. Blais, E. Murray, T. Lowary, and T. Conway, J. Bacteriol. 180:3704-3710, 1998). The pathways involved in the metabolism of ketogluconate by E. coli have been predicted by biochemical analysis of purified enzymes and chemical analysis of the pathway intermediates. The gene products of yqhE and yafB were identified as 25DKGR-A, and 25DKGR-B, respectively, catalyzing the reduction of 25KDG to 2-keto-L-gulonate (2KLG). The native 25DKGR-A, 25DKGR-B, and 5KDGR had apparent molecular weights of about 30,000, 30,000, and 54,000, respectively. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels, all three enzymes showed protein bands with a molecular weight of about 29,000, which indicated that 25DKGR-A, 25DKGR-B, and 5KDGR may exist as monomeric, monomeric, and dimeric proteins, respectively. The optimum pHs for reduction were 7.5, 7.0, and 8.0, respectively. The 5KDGR was active with NADH, whereas 25DKGR-A and 25DKGR-B were active with NADPH as a preferred electron donor. 25DKG can be converted to 5KDG by 2KR, which is then reduced to D-gluconate by 5KDGR. The pathways were compared with those of Erwinia sp. and Corynebacterium sp. A BLAST search of published and incomplete microbial genome sequences revealed that the ketogluconate reductases and their related metabolism may be widespread in many species. (+info)
(5/349) Temperature-dependent fermentation of D-sorbitol in Escherichia coli O157:H7.
The influence of growth temperature on the ability to ferment D-sorbitol was investigated in Escherichia coli O157:H7. It was found that O157:H7 strains have a temperature-sensitive sorbitol phenotype. D-Sorbitol transport and sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were expressed in sorbitol-fermenting cells grown at 30 degrees C but only at a low level at 40 degrees C. Sorbitol-positive variants able to transport D-sorbitol were easily selected at 30 degrees C from culture of Sor(-) E. coli O157:H7 strains. (+info)
(6/349) Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast.
For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apple sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol/sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyols than glycerol. We suggest that the loss of >98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety valve that dissipates reducing power, while a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyols would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K(+)] accumulating during stress. We compare these results to the "osmotic adjustment" concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyols may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control. (+info)
(7/349) Evidence that the gene YLR070c of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a xylitol dehydrogenase.
The open reading frame YLR070c of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has high sequence similarity to S. cerevisiae sorbitol dehydrogenase and to xylitol dehydrogenase of Pichia stipitis. Overexpression of this open reading frame in S. cerevisiae resulted in xylitol dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme is specific for NADH. The following Michaelis constants were estimated: D-xylulose, 1.1 mM; NADH, 240 microM (at pH 7.0); xylitol, 25 mM; NAD, 100 microM (at pH 9.0). Xylitol dehydrogenase activity with the same kinetic properties can also be induced by xylose in wild type S. cerevisiae cells. (+info)
(8/349) Bacterial production of D-erythroascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid through functional expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase in Escherichia coli.
D-Arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the terminal step in the biosynthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli inherently lacking the enzyme. The recombinant E. coli strain expressing the enzyme could overproduce D-erythroascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid when supplied with D-arabinono-1,4-lactone and L-galactono-1,4-lactone, respectively. (+info)