Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia disclosed by the onset of empyema thoracis.
A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 1996 due to empyema thoracis. A laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (<300 cells/ microl). No evidence for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found. No malignant, hematological or autoimmune disease was detected. We thus diagnosed this case as being idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL). During his hospital treatment, he was affected with cytomegaloviral retinitis and cured by therapy. His subsequent treatment went well without a recurrence of severe infection although a low CD4+ T lymphocyte count continued after the recovery from empyema thoracis. (+info)
Pneumococcal psoas abscess.
A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe low back pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left sided psoas muscle abscess. On the first hospital day, US-guided drainage was performed. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the pus. Thereafter, the open drainage of the abscess and antibiotic treatment were given with subsequent clinical improvement. Only 10 cases of pneumococcal psoas abscess have been previously reported in the world literature. (+info)
Use of ultrasonography in the patient with acute renal trauma.
The purpose of this study was to assess the use of emergent ultrasonographic examination in acute traumatic renal injuries. Over a 3 year period, prospective data of all patients who had an emergency ultrasonogram were recorded. Thirty-two patients with 37 renal injuries were studied retrospectively to identify in how many patients the sonogram detected free fluid or a renal parenchymal abnormality. Free fluid in the abdomen was identified in 19 of 32 patients (59%). However, 12 of these 19 patients had concomitant injury, such as splenic rupture requiring splenectomy, severe liver lacerations, or bowel lacerations requiring repair, that were possible causes of the free fluid. Eliminating these patients, only seven of 20 patients with isolated renal injuries had free fluid in the abdomen (35%), whereas 13 of 20 patients (65%) had no evidence of free fluid. All seven patients with free fluid had moderate or severe renal injuries. Renal parenchymal abnormalities were identified on ultrasonograms in eight of 37 (22%) of injured kidneys. The abnormalities were detected more commonly in cases of severe injury (60%). In conclusion, acute injuries of the kidney from blunt abdominal trauma often are associated with significant splenic, hepatic, or bowel trauma. Isolated renal injuries frequently occur without the presence of free fluid in the abdomen. Furthermore, the ultrasonogram of the kidney often is normal with acute renal injuries, but it is more likely to be abnormal with severe (grade II or greater) renal injuries. Sonography may be used in the triage of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and possible renal injury. However, a negative ultrasonogram does not exclude renal injury, and, depending on clinical and laboratory findings, other imaging procedures such as computed tomography should be performed. (+info)
Transcervical recovery of fetal cells from the lower uterine pole: reliability of recovery and histological/immunocytochemical analysis of recovered cell populations.
The aim of this work was to isolate, enumerate and attempt the identification of fetal cells recovered from the lower uterine pole. Immediately before elective termination of pregnancy at 7-17 weeks gestation, samples were recovered by transcervical flushing of the lower uterine pole (n = 108) or transcervical aspiration of mucus from just above the internal os (n = 187), and their contents examined using histological, immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. Syncytiotrophoblasts were identified morphologically in 28 out of 89 (31%) and 50 out of 180 (28%) flushings and aspirates respectively (mean 29%). Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing trophoblast or epithelial cell antigens on a smaller number of samples (n = 69) identified putative placental cells in 13 out of 19 (68%) and 25 out of 50 (50%) flushings and aspirates respectively (mean 55%). These included groups of distinctive cells with a small, round, hyperchromatic nucleus, strongly reactive with mAbs PLAP, NDOG1 and FT1.41.1. Smaller groups of larger, amorphous cells, usually containing multiple large, pale staining nuclei, reactive with mAb 340 and to a lesser degree with mAb NDOG5 were also observed. Taking cellular morphology and immunophenotype into consideration, the smaller uninucleate cells were likely to be villous mesenchymal cells, while the larger cells were possibly degrading villous syncytiotrophoblast. There was no significant difference in the frequency of fetal cells obtained by the two recovery methods. Squamous or columnar epithelial cells, labelled strongly with antibodies to cytokeratins or human milk fat globule protein, were observed in 97% (29 out of 30) of aspirates. The use of cervagem in a small number of patients prior to termination of pregnancy did not appear to influence the subsequent recovery of placental cells. Y-specific DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 13 out of 26 (50%) flushings and (99 out of 154) 64% aspirates analysed (mean 62%). In-situ hybridization (ISH) revealed Y-specific targets in 40 out of 69 (60%) of aspirates analysed. A comparison of PCR data obtained from transcervical recovered samples and placental tissues showed a concordance of 80% (76 out of 95), with 10 false positives. Comparing the PCR data from tissues with data derived by ISH from 41 aspirates gave a concordance of 90% with two false positives. Although syncytiotrophoblasts were much more likely to be present in samples containing immunoreactive placental cells, the detection rates of fetal-derived DNA were similar regardless of the morphological and/or immunological presence of placental cells. We conclude that the transcervical recovery of fetal cells, while promising, requires considerable additional effort being expended in further research and development, particular in the sampling procedure. (+info)
Evaluation of routine tracheal extubation in children: inflating or suctioning technique?
We studied prospectively the effects of the technique of tracheal extubation on arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in 120 ASA I-III children, mean age 5.3 (range 0.25-16.9) yr. At completion of surgery, tracheal extubation was performed when spontaneous ventilation had resumed, children were fully awake and SpO2 was 99-100%. Children were allocated randomly to receive a single lung inflation manoeuvre with 100% oxygen before tracheal extubation (group I; n = 59) or to have the tracheal tube removed while applying suction through the tube (group S; n = 61). SpO2 was monitored during the first 5 min after tracheal extubation in the operating room. Supplementary oxygen was given if SpO2 decreased to less than 92%. The time between tracheal extubation and decrease in SpO2 to 92% (T92) was recorded. Children in group S required oxygen administration more frequently after tracheal extubation than those in group I (65.6% vs 45.8%; P = 0.04), and had a three-fold shortening of T92 (mean 25 (SD 19) s vs 85 (63) s; P = 0.0001). These effects were more pronounced in children less than 4 yr of age compared with older children. We conclude that tracheal extubation greatly impaired oxygenation and therefore administration of oxygen was appropriate. This impairment was more marked when suction was used, and in young children. Lung inflation with 100% oxygen before removal of the tracheal tube is advised before routine tracheal extubation in children. (+info)
Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis.
BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disorders are important causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Viral causes are common and may lead to rapid deterioration, requiring mechanical ventilation; myocardial dysfunction may accompany respiratory decompensation. The etiologic viral diagnosis may be difficult with classic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for identification of causative agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCR was used to amplify sequences of viruses known to cause childhood viral pneumonia and myocarditis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify specific sequences of DNA virus (adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and RNA virus (enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, and influenza B) genomes. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained from 32 intubated patients and nucleic acid extracted before PCR. PCR results were compared with results of culture, serology, and antigen detection methods when available. In cases of myocarditis (n=7), endomyocardial biopsy samples were analyzed by PCR and compared with tracheal aspirate studies. PCR amplification of viral genome occurred in 18 of 32 samples (56%), with 3 samples PCR positive for 2 viral genomes. Amplified viral sequences included RSV (n=3), enterovirus (n=5), cytomegalovirus (n=4), adenovirus (n=3), herpes simplex virus (n=2), Epstein-Barr virus (n=1), influenza A (n=2), and influenza B (n=1). All 7 cases of myocarditis amplified the same viral genome from heart as found by tracheal aspirate. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool in cases of viral pneumonia with or without myocarditis, and tracheal aspirate appears to be excellent for analysis. (+info)
Fertilization and pregnancy outcome with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for azoospermic men.
The evident ability of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates regardless of semen characteristics has induced its application with spermatozoa surgically retrieved from azoospermic men. Here, ICSI outcome was analysed in 308 cases according to the cause of azoospermia; four additional cycles were with cases of necrozoospermia. All couples were genetically counselled and appropriately screened. Spermatozoa were retrieved by microsurgical epididymal aspiration or from testicular biopsies. Epididymal obstructions were considered congenital (n = 138) or acquired (n = 103), based on the aetiology. Testicular sperm cases were assessed according to the presence (n = 14) or absence (n = 53) of reproductive tract obstruction. The fertilization rate using fresh or cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa was 72.4% of 911 eggs for acquired obstructions, and 73.1% of 1524 eggs for congenital cases; with clinical pregnancy rates of 48.5% (50/103) and 61.6% (85/138) respectively. Spermatozoa from testicular biopsies fertilized 57.0% of 533 eggs in non-obstructive cases compared to 80.5% of 118 eggs (P = 0.0001) in obstructive azoospermia. The clinical pregnancy rate was 49.1% (26/53) for non-obstructive cases and 57.1% (8/14) for testicular spermatozoa obtained in obstructive azoospermia, including three established with frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa. In cases of obstructive azoospermia, fertilization and pregnancy rates with epididymal spermatozoa were higher than those achieved using spermatozoa obtained from the testes of men with non-obstructive azoospermia. (+info)
A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast.
A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection. (+info)