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(1/306) Effects of an intubating dose of succinylcholine and rocuronium on the larynx and diaphragm: an electromyographic study in humans.

BACKGROUND: Paralysis of the vocal cords is one objective of using relaxants to facilitate tracheal intubation. This study compares the neuromuscular blocking effect of succinylcholine and rocuronium on the larynx, the diaphragm, and the adductor pollicis muscle. METHODS: Electromyographic response was used to compare the neuromuscular blocking effect of succinylcholine and rocuronium on the laryngeal adductor muscles, the diaphragm, and the adductor pollicis muscle. Sixteen patients undergoing elective surgery were anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl, and their tracheas were intubated without neuromuscular blocking agents. The recurrent laryngeal and phrenic nerves were stimulated at the neck. The electromyographic response was recorded from electrodes placed on the endotracheal tube and intercostally before and after administration of 1 mg/kg succinylcholine or 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium. RESULTS: The maximum effect was greater at the adductor pollicis (100 and 99%) than at the larynx (96 and 97%) and the diaphragm (94 and 96%) after administration of succinylcholine and rocuronium, respectively (P < or = 0.05). Onset time was not different between the larynx (58+/-10 s), the diaphragm (57+/-8 s), and the adductor pollicis (54+/-13 s), after succinylcholine (all mean +/- SD). After rocuronium, onset time was 124+/-39 s at the larynx, 130+/-44 s at the diaphragm, and 115+/-21 s at the adductor pollicis. After succinylcholine administration, time to 90% recovery was 8.3+/-3.2, 7.2+/-3.5, and 9.1+/-3.0 min at the larynx, the diaphragm, and the adductor pollicis, respectively. Time to 90% recovery after rocuronium administration was 34.9+/-7.6, 30.4+/-4.2, and 49.1+/-11.4 min at the larynx, the diaphragm, and the adductor pollicis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Neuromuscular blocking effect of muscle relaxants on the larynx can be measured noninvasively by electromyography. Although the larynx appears to be resistant to muscle relaxants, we could not demonstrate that its onset time differed from that of peripheral muscles.  (+info)

(2/306) Halothane induces calcium release from human skinned masseter muscle fibers.

BACKGROUND: An increase in masseter muscle tone in response to halothane or succinylcholine anesthesia (or both) can be observed in healthy persons. Thus the authors compared the fiber-type halothane and succinylcholine sensitivities in human masseter and vastus lateralis muscles. METHODS: Masseter and vastus lateralis muscle segments were obtained from 13 and 9 healthy persons, respectively. After chemical skinning of a single fiber and loading the sarcoplasmic reticulum with Ca++ 0.16 microM solution, halothane (0.5-4 vol% bubbled in the incubating solution), succinylcholine (0.1 microM to 10 mM), or both sensitivities were defined as the concentration inducing more than 10% of the maximum tension obtained by application of 16 microM Ca++ solution. The myofilament response to Ca++ was studied with and without halothane by observing the isometric tension of skinned masseter fibers challenged with increasing concentrations of Ca++. Muscle fiber type was determined by the difference in strontium-induced tension measurements. RESULTS: A significant difference in halothane sensitivity was found between type 1 masseter fibers (0.6+/-0.2 vol%; mean +/- SD) versus type 1 (2.7+/-0.6 vol%) and type 2 vastus lateralis muscle (2.5+/-0.4 vol%). Succinylcholine did not induce Ca++ release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In the masseter muscle, 0.75 vol% halothane decreased the maximal activated tension by 40% but did not change the Ca++ concentration that yields 50% of the maximal tension. CONCLUSIONS: The very low halothane threshold for Ca++ release from the masseter muscle usually could be counteracted by a direct negative inotropic effect on contractile proteins. However, halothane may increase the sensitivity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ release to succinylcholine-induced depolarization, leading to an increase in masseter muscle tone.  (+info)

(3/306) Characteristics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.

AIM: To study the biochemical-pharmacological properties of the recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (rhBChE) and thereby to size up the potential possibility of using it as a detoxifying agent in succinylcholine intoxication. METHODS: CHO-dhfr cells were transfected with plasmids by electroporation. BChE activity was determined colorimetrically by 5, 5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) method. Antigenicity was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. RESULTS: The maximal expression amounted to 25.83 ng.h-1/10(6) cells. The rhBChE was highly similar to the native human BChE (nhBChE) in terms of its catalytic property, substrate affinity, inhibitor sensitivity, reactivation, stability, and immunoreactivity with anti-nhBChE antibodies. Mice challenged with 1.5 lethal dose of succinylcholine preincubated with rhBChE survived without any symptoms of intoxication. CONCLUSION: The rhBChE and nhBChE exhibit similar biochemical-pharmacological features. It is of potential value in practical use.  (+info)

(4/306) Comparison of intubating conditions after rapacuronium (Org 9487) and succinylcholine following rapid sequence induction in adult patients.

We have assessed intubating conditions provided by rapacuronium (Org 9487) and succinylcholine after rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. We studied 335 patients, ASA I and II, in five centres. Two hundred and thirty-four subjects with normal body weight and 101 obese subjects were allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups differing in the neuromuscular blocking drug administered (rapacuronium 1.5 mg kg-1 or succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1) and in the technique used for induction of anaesthesia (fentanyl 2-3 micrograms kg-1 with thiopental 3-6 mg kg-1 or alfentanil 20 micrograms kg-1 with propofol 1.5-2 mg kg-1). Intubation was started at 50 s by an anaesthetist blinded to the drugs used. Intubating conditions were clinically acceptable (excellent or good) in 89.4% of patients after rapacuronium and in 97.4% after succinylcholine (P = 0.004), the estimated difference being 8.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-14.1%). Neither anaesthetic technique nor subject group had an influence on intubating conditions. After intubation, the maximum increase in heart rate averaged 23.1 (SD 25.4%) and 9.4 (26.1%) after rapacuronium and succinylcholine, respectively (P < 0.001). Pulmonary side effects (bronchospasm and increased airway pressure) were observed in 10.7% (95% CI 5.8-17%) and 4.1% (95% CI 1.3-8.8%) of patients given rapacuronium and succinylcholine, respectively (P = 0.021). We conclude that after rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in adults, clinically acceptable intubating conditions were achieved less frequently after rapacuronium 1.5 mg kg-1 than after succinylcholine.  (+info)

(5/306) Hemodynamic and metabolic manifestations of acute endotoxin infusion in pigs with and without the malignant hyperthermia mutation.

BACKGROUND: The hypermetabolic state induced by acute endotoxemia and malignant hyperthermia (MH) may be indistinguishable. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the differences between MH and sepsis, (2) to determine whether acute endotoxemia can trigger MH, and (3) to establish the effects of dantrolene in these two disorders. METHODS: Three groups of swine were studied. All pigs were invasively monitored and initially anesthetized with nontriggering agents. A placebo MH-susceptible group (n = 5) received normal saline whereas the endotoxin groups (MH-susceptible, n = 6; MH-negative, n = 4) received intravenous endotoxin (250 microg/kg total) during 2.5 h. Halothane (1.5%) and succinylcholine (2-4 mg/kg) were then administered, followed by two doses of dantrolene (4 mg/kg total). RESULTS: Endotoxin infusion resulted in pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension in pigs with and without the MH mutation, but did not trigger MH. Halothane and succinylcholine triggered MH, evidenced by a markedly higher oxygen consumption in the MH-susceptible pigs that received endotoxin (325+/-196 ml/min) and those that did not (374+/-110 ml/min) compared to the MH-negative pigs (69+/-15 ml/min, P<0.0009), as well as muscular rigidity in the susceptible animals. Dantrolene reversed these changes. Three of the six MH-susceptible pigs that received endotoxin died; two died soon after triggering and one after dantrolene administration. In contrast, none of the MH-negative pigs or the MH-susceptible pigs that did not receive endotoxin died (0 of 9 vs. 3 of 6, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Endotoxemia does not trigger MH, but may worsen outcome if it occurs.  (+info)

(6/306) Effect of rocuronium compared with succinylcholine on intraocular pressure during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia.

We have compared the effect of rocuronium and succinylcholine on intraocular pressure (IOP) during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia using propofol and fentanyl, in a randomized double-blind study. We studied 30 adult patients, allocated to one of two groups. Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 micrograms kg-1 and propofol until loss of verbal response. This was followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group S; n = 15) or rocuronium 0.9 mg kg-1 (group R; n = 15). Laryngoscopy was performed 60 s later. IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, immediately before intubation and every minute after intubation for 5 min. A Keeler Pulsair air impulse tonometer was used to measure IOP and the mean of two readings obtained in the right eye at each measurement time was recorded. Intubating conditions were evaluated according to a simple scoring system. IOP in the succinylcholine group was significantly greater than that in the rocuronium group (mean 21.6 (SEM 1.4) mm Hg vs 13.3 (1.4) mm Hg; P < 0.001). Intubating conditions were equally good in both groups. We conclude that with rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia using propofol and fentanyl, rocuronium did not cause as great an increase in IOP as succinylcholine and may be an alternative in open eye injury cases.  (+info)

(7/306) Intramuscular rapacuronium in infants and children: dose-ranging and tracheal intubating conditions.

BACKGROUND: Intravenous rapacuronium's rapid onset and short duration suggest that intramuscular rapacuronium might facilitate tracheal intubation without prolonged paralysis. Accordingly, the authors injected rapacuronium into the deltoid muscle to determine the optimal dose and time for intubation in pediatric patients. METHODS: Unpremedicated patients (aged, 2 months to 3 yr) were studied. Part I: Spontaneous minute ventilation (V(E)) and twitch tension were measured during N2O/halothane anesthesia. Rapacuronium (2.2-5.5 mg/kg, given intramuscularly, n = 23), succinylcholine (4 mg/kg, given intramuscularly, n = 12), or vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg, given intravenously, n = 15) was given. Time to 50% depression of V(E) and 10% recovery of twitch were measured. Dose for each patient was changed 10-20% according to the previous patient's response. Part II: In 22 patients anesthetized with 0.82-1.0% halothane, the optimal rapacuronium dose determined in part I (infants, 2.8 mg/kg; children, 4.8 mg/kg) was given intramuscularly. Laryngoscopy was scored. Time to laryngoscopy was increased or decreased 0.5 min according to the previous patient's response. RESULTS: Part I: Rapacuronium typically depressed ventilation in < or = 2 min with 10% twitch recovery in 20-60 min. With succinylcholine, median time to ventilatory depression was 1.3 and 1.1 min for infants and children, respectively; for vecuronium, 0.7 and 0.6 min. Part I: Intubating conditions were good-excellent at 3.0 and 2.5 min in infants and children, respectively; time to 10% twitch recovery (mean +/- SD) was 31 +/- 14 and 36 +/- 14 min in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that deltoid injection of rapacuronium, 2.8 mg/kg in infants and 4.8 mg/kg in children, permits tracheal intubation within 2.5-3.0 min, despite a light plane of anesthesia. Duration of action is intermediate.  (+info)

(8/306) Comparison of the intubation conditions provided by rapacuronium (ORG 9487) or succinylcholine in humans during anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol.

BACKGROUND: Currently, the only approved muscle relaxant with a rapid onset and short duration of action is succinylcholine, a drug with some undesirable effects. Rapacuronium is an investigational nondepolarizing relaxant that also has a rapid onset and short duration and consequently should be compared with succinylcholine in its ability to facilitate rapid tracheal intubation. METHODS: This prospective, randomized clinical trial involved 336 patients. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol and either 1.5 mg/kg rapacuronium or 1.0 mg/kg succinylcholine. The goal was to accomplish tracheal intubation by 60 s after administration of the neuromuscular blocking drug. Endotracheal intubation was performed, and conditions were graded by a blinded investigator. Recovery of neuromuscular function was assessed by electromyography. RESULTS: Intubation conditions were evaluated in 236 patients. Intubation by 60 s after drug administration occurred in 100% of patients with rapacuronium and in 98% with succinylcholine. Intubation conditions were excellent or good in 87% of patients with rapacuronium and in 95% with succinylcholine (P < 0.05). The time (median and range) to the first recovery of the train-of-four response was 8.0 (2.8-20.0) min with rapacuronium and 5.7 (1.8-17.7) min with succinylcholine (P < 0.05). The overall incidence of adverse effects was similar with both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: A 1.5-mg/kg dose of rapacuronium effectively facilitates rapid tracheal intubation. It can be considered a valid alternative to 1.0 mg/kg succinylcholine for this purpose.  (+info)