Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant.
A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity. (+info)
Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine.
In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids. (+info)
Relationship between succinate transport and production of extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase in Pseudomonas lemoignei.
The relationship between extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase synthesis and the unusual properties of a succinate uptake system was investigated in Pseudomonas lemoignei. Growth on and uptake of succinate were highly pH dependent, with optima at pH 5.6. Above pH 7, growth on and uptake of succinate were strongly reduced with concomitant derepression of PHB depolymerase synthesis. The specific succinate uptake rates were saturable by high concentrations of succinate, and maximal transport rates of 110 nmol/mg of cell protein per min were determined between pH 5.6 and 6. 8. The apparent KS0.5 values increased with increasing pH from 0.2 mM succinate at pH 5.6 to more than 10 mM succinate at pH 7.6. The uptake of [14C]succinate was strongly inhibited by several monocarboxylates. Dicarboxylates also inhibited the uptake of succinate but only at pH values near the dissociation constant of the second carboxylate function (pKa2). We conclude that the succinate carrier is specific for the monocarboxylate forms of various carboxylic acids and is not able to utilize the dicarboxylic forms. The inability to take up succinate2- accounts for the carbon starvation of P. lemoignei observed during growth on succinate at pH values above 7. As a consequence the bacteria produce high levels of extracellular PHB depolymerase activity in an effort to escape carbon starvation by utilization of PHB hydrolysis products. (+info)
One-carbon metabolism in methanogenic bacteria: analysis of short-term fixation products of 14CO2 and 14CH3OH incorporated into whole cells.
Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, M. ruminantium, and Methanosarcina barkeri were labeled with 14CO2 (14CO2 + H14CO3- + 14CO32-) for from 2 to 45 s. Radioactivity was recovered in coenzyme M derivatives, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and several unidentified compounds. The properties of one important structurally unidentified intermediate (yellow fluorescent compound) displayed UV absorbance maxima at pH 1 of 290 and 335 nm, no absorbance in the visible region, and a fluorescence maximum at 460 nm. Label did not appear in organic phosphates until after 1 min. 14CH3OH was converted by M. barkeri primarily into coenzyme M derivatives at 25 s. [2-14C]acetate was assimilated by M. thermoautotrophicum mainly into alanine and succinate during 2 to 240 s, but not into coenzyme M derivatives or yellow fluorescent compound. Cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum lacked ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. The data indicated the absence of the Calvin, serine, and hexulose phosphate paths of C1 assimilation in the methanogens examined and indicated that pyruvate was an early intermediate product of net CO2 fixation. The in vivo importance of coenzyme M derivatives in methanogenesis was demonstrated. (+info)
Targeted delivery and improved therapeutic potential of catalase by chemical modification: combination with superoxide dismutase derivatives.
Four types of bovine liver catalase (CAT) derivatives, succinylated (Suc-CAT), galactosylated (Gal-CAT), mannosylated (Man-CAT), and polyethylene glycol conjugate (PEG-CAT), were synthesized and their pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential in a hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury model were studied in mice. About 90% of the CAT enzymatic activity was retained after chemical modification. Biodistribution studies showed that 111indium (111In)-Gal-CAT accumulated selectively in the liver parenchymal cells as 111In-CAT, whereas an increased amount of 111In-Suc-CAT and 111In-Man-CAT was delivered to liver nonparenchymal cells. 111In-PEG-CAT exhibited prolonged retention in plasma. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the hepatic uptake clearances of 111In-Suc-CAT, 111In-Gal-CAT, and 111In-Man-CAT were much greater than that of 111In-CAT, whereas that of 111In-PEG-CAT was very small. In the ischemia/reperfusion injury model, in which hepatic injury was induced by occlusion of the portal vein for 30 min followed by 1 h reperfusion, the elevation of plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels was slightly inhibited by treatment with native CAT or Gal-CAT. PEG-CAT was less potent. In contrast, Suc-CAT and Man-CAT effectively suppressed the increase in plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Coinjection of mannosylated superoxide dismutase marginally improved the inhibitory effects of CAT derivatives. These results demonstrate that targeted CAT delivery to liver nonparenchymal cells via chemical modification is a promising approach to prevent hepatic injuries caused by reactive oxygen species. The potential usefulness of combining of CAT and superoxide dismutase derivatives is also demonstrated. (+info)
Pseudo-proteinuria following gelofusine infusion.
Transient massive proteinuria following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery was observed. It was characterized and attributed to post-operative gelofusine infusion. Gelofusine was found to interfere with dye binding but not immunochemical assays of proteinuria. Proteinuria following gelofusine infusion may not reflect underlying glomerular pathology. (+info)
Comparative disposition of the nephrotoxicant N-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide and the non-nephrotoxicant N-(3, 5-difluorophenyl)succinimide in Fischer 344 rats.
Disposition of the nephrotoxicant N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide (NDPS) was compared with that of a nontoxic analog, N-(3, 5-difluorophenyl)succinimide (DFPS). Male Fischer 344 rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mmol/kg [14C]NDPS or [14C]DFPS (i.p. in corn oil). Plasma concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained through the carotid artery. Urine samples were analyzed for metabolite content by HPLC. Rats were sacrificed at 3 h (DFPS) or 6 h (NDPS) and tissue radiolabel content and covalent binding were determined. [14C]NDPS-derived plasma radioactivity levels were 6- to 21-fold higher and peaked later than those from [14C]DFPS. Six hours after dosing, NDPS was 40% eliminated in the urine compared with approximately 90% for DFPS. By 48 h, only 67% of the NDPS dose was eliminated in urine. In contrast, DFPS excretion was virtually complete within 24 h. NDPS underwent oxidative metabolism to a slightly greater extent than DFPS. Distribution of [14C]NDPS-derived radioactivity into the kidneys was 3- to 6-fold higher than that into the liver or heart, and was more extensive than with [14C]DFPS. NDPS also covalently bound to plasma, renal, and hepatic proteins to a greater extent than DFPS. In summary, NDPS achieves higher tissue and plasma concentrations, covalently binds to a greater extent, and is eliminated more slowly than DFPS. Differences in the lipid solubility of NDPS metabolites and DFPS metabolites may help explain these results. The overall greater tissue exposure of NDPS and its metabolites may contribute to differential toxicity of these analogs. (+info)
Uptake of bromosulfophthalein via SO2-4/OH- exchange increases the K+ conductance of rat hepatocytes.
In confluent primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, micromolar concentrations of bromosulfophthalein (BSP) lead to a sizeable hyperpolarization of membrane voltage. The effect is a saturable function of BSP concentration yielding an apparent value of 226 micromol/l and a Vmax of -10.3 mV. The BSP-induced membrane hyperpolarization is inhibited by the K+ channel blocker Ba2+, and in cable-analysis and ion-substitution experiments it becomes evident that the effect is due to a significant increase in cell membrane K+ conductance. Voltage changes were attenuated by the simultaneous administration of SO2-4, succinate, and cholate (cis-inhibition) and increased after preincubation with SO2-4 and succinate (trans-stimulation), suggesting that the effect occurs via BSP uptake through the known SO2-4/OH- exchanger. Microfluorometric measurements reveal that BSP-induced activation of K+ conductance is not mediated by changes in cell pH, cell Ca2+, or cell volume. It is concluded that K+ channel activation by BSP (as well as by DIDS and indocyanine green) may reflect a physiological mechanism linking the sinusoidal uptake of certain anions to their electrogenic canalicular secretion. (+info)