Plant succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Cloning, purification, localization in mitochondria, and regulation by adenine nucleotides.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is one of three enzymes constituting the gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt. We have cloned the cDNA for SSADH from Arabidopsis, which we designated SSADH1. SSADH1 cDNA encodes a protein of 528 amino acids (56 kD) with high similarity to SSADH from Escherichia coli and human (>59% identity). A sequence similar to a mitochondrial protease cleavage site is present 33 amino acids from the N terminus, indicating that the mature mitochondrial protein may contain 495 amino acids (53 kD). The native recombinant enzyme and the plant mitochondrial protein have a tetrameric molecular mass of 197 kD. Fractionation of plant mitochondria revealed its localization in the matrix. The purified recombinant enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 to 9.5, was specific for succinic semialdehyde (K(0.5) = 15 microM), and exclusively used NAD+ as a cofactor (Km = 130 +/- 77 microM). NADH was a competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD+ (Ki = 122 +/- 86 microM). AMP, ADP, and ATP inhibited the activity of SSADH (Ki = 2.5-8 mM). The mechanism of inhibition was competitive for AMP, noncompetitive for ATP, and mixed competitive for ADP with respect to NAD+. Plant SSADH may be responsive to mitochondrial energy charge and reducing potential in controlling metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid. (+info)
Catabolism of alpha-ketoglutarate by a sucA mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum: evidence for an alternative tricarboxylic acid cycle.
A complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is generally considered necessary for energy production from the dicarboxylic acid substrates malate, succinate, and fumarate. However, a Bradyrhizobium japonicum sucA mutant that is missing alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is able to grow on malate as its sole source of carbon. This mutant also fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with soybean, where dicarboxylic acids are its principal carbon substrate. Using a flow chamber system to make direct measurements of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, we confirmed that bacteroids formed by the sucA mutant displayed wild-type rates of respiration and nitrogen fixation. Despite the absence of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, whole cells of the mutant were able to decarboxylate alpha-[U-(14)C]ketoglutarate and [U-(14)C]glutamate at rates similar to those of wild-type B. japonicum, indicating that there was an alternative route for alpha-ketoglutarate catabolism. Because cell extracts from B. japonicum decarboxylated [U-(14)C]glutamate very slowly, the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is unlikely to be the pathway responsible for alpha-ketoglutarate catabolism in the mutant. In contrast, cell extracts from both the wild type and mutant showed a coenzyme A (CoA)-independent alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylation activity. This activity was independent of pyridine nucleotides and was stimulated by thiamine PP(i). Thin-layer chromatography showed that the product of alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylation was succinic semialdehyde. The CoA-independent alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase, along with succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, may form an alternative pathway for alpha-ketoglutarate catabolism, and this pathway may enhance TCA cycle function during symbiotic nitrogen fixation. (+info)
Mutation analysis in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: a compound heterozygote with 103-121del and 1460T > A of the ALDH5A1 gene.
We saw a 17-month-old boy with moderate psychomotor retardation, and enzymatically diagnosed succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. After extracting mRNA and genomic DNA from his cultured lymphoblasts, we analyzed the entire coding region of the ALDH5A1 gene using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR followed by sequencing. He was demonstrated to be a compound heterozygote with two novel mutations (103-121 del and 1460T>A). The former leads to a frameshift and premature termination, and the latter is a missense mutation, V487E. Both mutations were also detected in the genomic DNA. Taken together with previous mutation reports, genetic heterogeneity was suspected for SSADH deficiency, and may account for the wide range of its phenotype. (+info)
Therapeutic intervention in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria).
Therapeutic intervention for human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) has been limited to vigabatrin (VGB). Pharmacologically, VGB should be highly effective due to 4-aminobutyrate-transaminase (GABA-transaminase) inhibition, lowering succinic semialdehyde and, thereby, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels. Unfortunately, clinical efficacy has been limited. Because GHB possesses a number of potential receptor interactions, we addressed the hypothesis that antagonism of these interactions in mice with SSADH deficiency could lead to the development of novel treatment strategies for human patients. SSADH-deficient mice have significantly elevated tissue GHB levels, are neurologically impaired, and die within 4 weeks postnatally. In the current report, we compared oral versus intraperitoneal administration of VGB, CGP 35348 [3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist], and the nonprotein amino acid taurine in rescue of SSADH-deficient mice from early death. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of the specific GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]benzocycloheptene-5-ol-6-ylideneacetic acid) using i.p. administration. All interventions led to significant lifespan extension (22-61%), with NCS-382 being most effective (50-61% survival). To explore the limited human clinical efficacy of VGB, we measured brain GHB and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in SSADH-deficient mice receiving VGB. Whereas high-dose VGB led to the expected elevation of brain GABA, we found no parallel decrease in GHB levels. Our data indicate that, at a minimum, GHB and GABA(B) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of SSADH deficiency. We conclude that taurine and NCS-382 may have therapeutic relevance in human SSADH deficiency and that the poor clinical efficacy of VGB in this disease may relate to an inability to decrease brain GHB concentrations. (+info)
Inhibition of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity by alkenal products of lipid peroxidation.
Lipid peroxidation causes the generation of the neurotoxic aldehydes acrolein and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE). These products are elevated in neurodegenerative diseases and acute CNS trauma. Previous studies demonstrate that mitochondrial class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is susceptible to inactivation by these alkenals. In the liver and brain another mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH/ALDH5A1), is present. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation inhibit SSADH activity using the endogenous substrate, succinic semialdehyde (SSA, 50 microM). Acrolein potently inhibited SSADH activity (IC(50)=15 microM) in rat brain mitochondrial preparations. This inhibition was of an irreversible and noncompetitive nature. HNE inhibited activity with an IC(50) of 110 microM. Trans-2-hexenal (HEX) and crotonaldehyde (100 microM each) did not inhibit activity. These data suggest that acrolein and HNE disrupt SSA metabolism and may have subsequent effects on CNS neurochemistry. (+info)
Mitochondrial succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase of the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is required to restrict levels of reactive oxygen intermediates in plants.
The gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) shunt is a metabolic pathway that bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase and succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). The activity of the GABA shunt in plants is rapidly enhanced in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However the physiological role of this pathway remains obscure. To elucidate its role in plants, we analyzed Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout mutants of SSADH, the ultimate enzyme of the pathway. Four alleles of the ssadh mutation were isolated, and these exhibited a similar phenotype. When exposed to white light (100 micromol of photons per m2 per s), they appear dwarfed with necrotic lesions. Detailed spectrum analysis revealed that UV-B has the most adverse effect on the mutant phenotype, whereas photosynthetic active range light has a very little effect. The ssadh mutants are also sensitive to heat, as they develop necrosis when submitted to such stress. Moreover, both UV and heat cause a rapid increase in the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the ssadh mutants, which is associated with enhanced cell death. Surprisingly, our study also shows that trichomes are hypersensitive to stresses in ssadh mutants. Our work establishes a role for the GABA shunt in preventing the accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates and cell death, which appears to be essential for plant defense against environmental stress. (+info)
A novel gamma-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase: identification and expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA and potential role under oxygen deficiency.
In plants, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, accumulates rapidly in response to a variety of abiotic stresses such as oxygen deficiency. Under normoxia, GABA is catabolized to succinic semialdehyde and then to succinate with the latter reaction being catalyzed by succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Complementation of an SSADH-deficient yeast mutant with an Arabidopsis cDNA library enabled the identification of a novel cDNA (designated as AtGH-BDH for Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase), which encodes a 289-amino acid polypeptide containing an NADP-binding domain. Constitutive expression of AtGHBDH in the mutant yeast enabled growth on 20 mm GABA and significantly enhanced the cellular concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the product of the GHDBH reaction. These data confirm that the cDNA encodes a polypeptide with GHBDH activity. Arabidopsis plants subjected to flooding-induced oxygen deficiency for up to 4 h possessed elevated concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate as well as GABA and alanine. RNA expression analysis revealed that GHBDH transcription was not up-regulated by oxygen deficiency. These findings suggest that GHBDH activity is regulated by the supply of succinic semialdehyde or by redox balance. It is proposed that GHBDH and SSADH activities in plants are regulated in a complementary fashion and that GHBDH and gamma-hydroxybutyrate function in oxidative stress tolerance. (+info)
Brain succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Reactions of sulfhydryl residues connected with catalytic activity.
Incubation of an NAD+-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from bovine brain with 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-iodoacetamide (DABIA) resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity. This inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 168 m(-1).min(-1). The spectrum of DABIA-labeled enzyme showed a characteristic peak of the DABIA alkylated sulfhydryl group chromophore at 436 nm, which was absent from the spectrum of the native enzyme. A linear relationship was observed between DABIA binding and the loss of enzyme activity, which extrapolates to a stoichiometry of 8.0 mol DABIA derivatives per mol enzyme tetramer. This inactivation was prevented by preincubating the enzyme with substrate, succinic semialdehyde, but not by preincubating with coenzyme NAD+. After tryptic digestion of the enzyme modified with DABIA, two peptides absorbing at 436 nm were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequences of the DABIA-labeled peptides were VCSNQFLVQR and EVGEAICTDPLVSK, respectively. These sites are identical to the putative active site sequences of other brain succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenases. These results suggest that the catalytic function of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is inhibited by the specific binding of DABIA to a cysteine residue at or near its active site. (+info)