Partner notification for gonorrhoea: a comparative study with a provincial and a metropolitan UK clinic. (1/21)

OBJECTIVE: To compare partner notification practice and outcomes at a provincial and a metropolitan clinic. DESIGN: Prospective study, following standardisation of partner notification policy. SETTINGS: Sheffield Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital and Jefferiss Wing Centre for Sexual Health, St Mary's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: Consecutive patients with culture positive gonorrhoea between October 1994 and March 1996 who were interviewed by a health adviser. RESULTS: In Sheffield, 235 cases reported 659 outstanding contacts, of whom 129 (20%) were subsequently screened, and 65 (50%) had gonorrhoea. At St Mary's 510 cases reported 2176 outstanding contacts, of whom 98 (5%) were known to have been screened, and 53 (54%) had gonorrhoea. Patient or provider referral agreements appeared more productive in Sheffield, where 60% resulted in contact attendance, compared with 13% at St Mary's. Provider referral was used more frequently in Sheffield, for 44% of referrals, compared with 1% at St Mary's. Multivariate analysis showed that partner notification was less effective for casual and short term (< 7 days) partnerships in both centres, and for homosexual men at St Mary's. CONCLUSION: Partner notification outcomes were better in the provincial setting where contact attendance could be recorded more reliably and provider referral was used more extensively. The high proportion of contacts who remained untraced in both settings indicates the need for complementary screening and prevention initiatives.  (+info)

Out-of-hours work: the effect of setting up a general practitioner cooperative on GPs and their families. (2/21)

Since 1995 the number of general practitioner (GP) cooperatives set up to provide out-of-hours care has risen dramatically. This study demonstrates that the setting up of a cooperative in Chester is linked to an increase in the morale of the local GPs and their families.  (+info)

Randomized controlled trial of general practitioner versus usual medical care in a suburban accident and emergency department using an informal triage system. (3/21)

We determined if care provided by general practitioners (GPs) to non-emergency patients, in a suburban accident and emergency (A&E) department using an informal triage system, differs significantly from care provided by usual A&E staff. One thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight patients participated. By comparison with usual A&E staff, GPs prescribed significantly more often (percentage relative difference [% RD] = 12 [95% confidence interval = 1-23]) and referred more patients to hospital (% RD = 21 [95% CI = 9-33]). This is the first study to report that sessional GPs working in an A&E department utilize similar or more resources than usual A&E staff. It emphasizes the need for the continued audit of initiatives that have been introduced into new settings.  (+info)

Addressing the unique challenges of inner-city practice: a direct observation study of inner-city, rural, and suburban family practices. (4/21)

Previous research on geographic variations in health care contains limited information regarding inner-city medical practice compared with suburban and rural settings. Our main objective was to compare patient characteristics and the process of providing medical care among family practices in inner-city, suburban, and rural locations. A cross-sectional multimethod study was conducted emphasizing direct observation of outpatient visits by trained research nurses involving 4,454 consecutive patients presenting for outpatient care to 138 family physicians during 2 days of observation at 84 community family practices in northeast Ohio. Time use during office visits was assessed with the Davis Observation Code; satisfaction was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study nine-item Visit Rating Scale; delivery of preventive services was as recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force; and patient-reported domains of primary care were assessed with the Components of Primary Care Instrument. Results show that inner-city patients had more chronic medical problems, more emotional problems, more problems evaluated per visit, higher rates of health habit counseling, and longer and more frequent office visits. Rural patients were older, more likely to be established with the same physician, and had higher rates of satisfaction and patient-reported physician knowledge of the patient. Suburban patients were younger, had fewer chronic medical problems, and took fewer medications chronically. Inner-city family physicians in northeast Ohio appear to see a more challenging patient population than their rural and suburban counterparts and have more complex outpatient office visits. These findings have implications for health system organization along with the reimbursement and recruitment of physicians in medically underserved inner-city areas.  (+info)

A comparison of health information needs between patients at a suburban hospital-based clinic and two underserved inner city clinics. (5/21)

A needs assessment was conducted and the results were analyzed to determine and compare the health information seeking habits and needs of outpatients at a suburban hospital-based clinic and at two clinics located in underserved areas of the inner city.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: current practices in a suburban community. (6/21)

PURPOSE: The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) identify women in their second and third trimesters as a high-risk population warranting influenza vaccination. This study attempted to characterize understanding of these guidelines and obstacles to their implementation in a suburban community. METHODS: Family physicians and obstetricians with admitting privileges to a community-based hospital were surveyed regarding estimated vaccine availability and administration in their practices and regarding knowledge of indications and contraindications to influenza vaccination in pregnancy. RESULTS: Of the 20 obstetricians and 66 family physicians completing the survey, 68.4% of obstetricians and 90.5% of family physicians carried the vaccine in their offices (P =.027). Both obstetricians and family physicians incorrectly perceived multiple factors as contraindications to influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Obstetricians and family physicians reported similar proportions of their pregnant patients received the vaccine (35 versus 40%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more family physicians had the influenza vaccine available than obstetricians, but there was no difference in estimated rates of vaccination during pregnancy or in the understanding of its indications and contraindications. Finally, no physicians in our community reported providing influenza vaccination in pregnancy at recommended frequencies. Further research is needed to clarify methods of improving vaccination rates in both family practice and obstetric settings.  (+info)

Fertility and parental consent for minors to receive contraceptives. (7/21)

OBJECTIVES: I examined the effect of imposing a requirement for parental consent before minors can receive medical contraceptives. METHODS: Birth and abortions among teens, relative to adults, in a suburban Illinois county that imposed a parental consent requirement in 1998 were compared with births and abortions in nearby counties during the period 1997-2000. RESULTS: The relative proportion of births to women under age 19 years in the county rose significantly compared with nearby counties, whereas the relative proportion of abortions to women under age 20 years declined insignificantly, with a relative increase in the proportion of pregnancies (births and abortions) to young women in the county. CONCLUSIONS: Imposing a parental consent requirement for contraceptives, but not abortions, appears to raise the frequency of pregnancies and births among young women.  (+info)

The medical care of patients with primary care home nursing is complex and influenced by non-medical factors: a comprehensive retrospective study from a suburban area in Sweden. (8/21)

BACKGROUND: The reduced number of hospital beds and an ageing population have resulted in growing demands for home nursing. We know very little about the comprehensive care of these patients. The objectives were to identify the care, in addition to primary health care, of patients with primary-care home nursing to give a comprehensive view of their care and to investigate how personal, social and functional factors influence the use of specialised medical care. METHODS: One-third (158) of all patients receiving primary-care home nursing in an area were sampled, and 73 % (116) were included. Their care from October 1995 until October 1996 was investigated by sending questionnaires to district nurses and home-help providers and by collecting retrospective data from primary-care records and official statistics. We used non-parametric statistical methods, i.e. medians and minimum - maximum, chi2, and the Mann-Whitney test, since the data were not normally distributed. Conditional logistic regression was used to study whether personal, social or functional factors influenced the chance (expressed as odds ratio) that study patients had made visits to or had received inpatient care from specialised medical care during the study year. RESULTS: 56 % of the patients had been hospitalised. 73 % had made outpatient visits to specialised medical care. The care took place at 14 different hospitals, and more than 22 specialities were involved, but local care predominated. Almost all patients visited doctors, usually in both primary and specialised medical care. Patients who saw doctors in specialised care had more help from all other categories of care. Patients who received help from their families made more visits to specialised medical care and patients with severe ADL dependence made fewer visits. CONCLUSIONS: The care of patients with primary-care home nursing is complex. Apart from home nursing, all patients also made outpatient visits to doctors, usually in both primary and specialised medical care. Many different caregivers and professions were involved. Reduced functional capacity decreased and help from family members increased the chance of having received outpatient specialised medical care. This raises questions concerning the medical care for patients with both medical and functional problems.  (+info)