A practical approach to determine cutoff concentrations for opiate testing with simultaneous detection of codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine in urine.
BACKGROUND: Both the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) currently require two confirmation tests to verify use of heroin, one test for total morphine and a separate test for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Our aim was to determine appropriate free-codeine, free-morphine, and 6-AM cutoff concentrations that could be substituted for total-morphine, total-codeine, and 6-AM cutoff concentrations and to develop a less labor-intensive method for measuring codeine, morphine, and 6-AM. METHODS: Urine samples containing opiates were extracted, derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. RESULTS: The limits of detection for codeine, morphine, and 6-AM were 6, 5, and 0.5 microg/L, respectively. Recoveries were >90%. Quantification was linear over the concentration range of 6-1000 microg/L for codeine, 5-5000 microg/L for morphine, and 0.5-800 microg/L for 6-AM. Cutoff concentrations for confirmation of opiates were 100, 100, and 10 microg/L for free codeine, free morphine, and 6-AM. CONCLUSION: The proposed cutoff concentrations for free morphine and 6-AM provide better detection windows for morphine and heroin use than the cutoff concentrations for total morphine and 6-AM used at present. Detection of free codeine, instead of total codeine, simplifies interpretation of codeine use. The single-extraction method enables simultaneous, less labor-intensive analysis of morphine, codeine, and 6-AM. (+info)
Accuracy of five on-site immunoassay drugs-of-abuse testing devices.
Many current "on-site" urine drug-testing products claim performance equivalent to laboratory testing. Five commercially available products (PharmScreen, Roche TestCup, Accusign DOA 2, Status DS, and American Bio Medica-Rapid Drug Screen) were challenged with quality-control specimens of known drug metabolite concentrations, 25% above and 25% below the SAMHSA cutoffs, and with known positive and negative donor specimens previously analyzed by immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate discrepancies between claims and performance for all products, particularly with amphetamines. The implications for employer-based drug testing are discussed. (+info)
Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.
OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. (+info)
The measurement of nitrite in adulterated urine samples by high-performance ion chromatography.
With the increased availability of nitrite-containing commercial products that are used for the adulteration of urine samples in the workplace, it is necessary for laboratories to be able to detect and confirm the presence of nitrite in these samples. We have developed a method to confirm the presence of nitrite in urine samples. The method uses the IonPac AS 14 analytical column with the Dionex series 45001 Bio LC system equipped with an anion self-generating suppressor and conductivity detector. Using a single-point calibration, the method is linear and accurately quantitates nitrite to 12,000 microg/mL. The limit of detection is 30 microg/mL, and the day-to-day precision of the assay has a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% at 1200 microg/mL and 3.8% at 2700 microg/mL of nitrite. (+info)
Nail analysis for drugs of abuse: extraction and determination of cannabis in fingernails by RIA and GC-MS.
Fingernail clippings were evaluated as analytical specimens for the detection and quantitation of cannabinoids. Specimens were obtained from consenting adults attending a drug clinic, along with information concerning the drugs which they had used over the previous six months. Methods for the surface decontamination and extraction of the specimens were evaluated. Detergent, water, and methanol washes followed by alkaline hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction were selected for use in the study. Extracts were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantitate cannabinoids present in fingernail clippings. Positive RIA results were obtained from specimens from six known cannabis users. The mean cannabinoid concentration in fingernail clippings determined by RIA was 1.03 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the mean delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration in fingernail clippings from a further 14 known cannabis users was 1.44 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the average 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid concentration in fingernail clippings from three known cannabis users extracted in acidic pH was 19.85 ng/mg. Based on these results, fingernails are potentially useful biological specimens for the detection of past cannabis use in cases of medicolegal interest. (+info)
Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid--comparison with urinary analysis for proving heroin administration in opiate fatalities.
The concentrations of morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and vitreous humor (VH) and the morphine concentrations in blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 29 fatalities after abuse of heroin either alone or in combination with alcohol and other drugs. 6-AM was found above a quantitation limit of 1 ng/mL in urine in 89% of the cases, in CSF in 68% of the cases, and in VH in 75% of the cases. The 6-AM concentrations in CSF (mean, 10 ng/mL) and VH (mean, 17 ng/mL) were in general much smaller than in urine (mean, 170 ng/mL); therefore, the different pharmacokinetic behavior of the fluids is discussed. There is no uniformity between the three fluids with respect to the presence or absence of 6-AM. Therefore, CSF or VH may be used as complementary or alternative materials to urine in order to prove heroin uptake in opiate fatalities. (+info)
Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex.
Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound. (+info)
Comparison of solid-phase extraction and supercritical fluid extraction for the analysis of morphine in whole blood.
A comparative study of the quantitative determination of morphine in whole blood using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is described. Comparative studies were made of the two techniques for the extraction of morphine from authentic forensic blood specimens. Quantitative results indicate that morphine levels measured using SPE correspond well to morphine levels produced using SFE. The two techniques are therefore comparable, although SFE is faster and cleaner and extracts may be produced with higher analyte recoveries than with SPE. This paper presents a comparison of the two techniques and the morphine concentrations determined in blood. (+info)