Fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymphoproliferative lesions involving the major salivary glands.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is an accurate and cost-effective procedure for evaluating salivary gland lesions. Lymphoproliferative lesions may manifest as salivary gland enlargement. We report our experience with 43 cases of reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions of the salivary glands evaluated by FNA, including 23 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 20 neoplastic lymphoproliferative processes. The latter included 2 multiple myelomas and 18 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1; small cleaved cell lymphoma, 1; lympho-plasmacytoid lymphoma, 1; mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, 2; mixed cell lymphoma, 4; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1; and large cell lymphoma, 8). There were no false-negative diagnoses. Aspiration smears from 3 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 4 patients with malignant lymphoma initially were interpreted as atypical lymphoid proliferations or as suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Thus, FNA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 87%. The majority of patients were treated medically without surgical intervention. Among the patients who underwent surgical resection of the salivary gland, 7 had an equivocal cytologic diagnosis and 2 had a benign cytologic diagnosis, but their parotid swelling failed to regress despite medical treatment. In most instances, FNA provides useful information for subsequent disease management and obviates surgical intervention. (+info)
Novel DNA copy number losses in chromosome 12q12--q13 in adenoid cystic carcinoma.
In order to find common genetic abnormalities that may identify loci of genes involved in the development of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), we investigated DNA copy number changes in 24 of these tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Our results indicate that unlike many carcinomas, ACCs have relatively few changes in DNA copy number overall. Twenty tumors had DNA copy number changes, which were mostly restricted to a few chromosomal arms. A frequent novel finding was the loss of DNA copy number in chromosome 12q (eight tumors, 33%) with the minimal common overlapping region at 12q12--q13. Deletion in this region has not been reported to be frequent in other types of cancer analyzed by CGH. In addition, deletions in 6q23-qter and 13q21--q22 and gains of chromosome 19 were observed in 25% to 38% of ACCs. Deletion of 19q, previously reported in a small series of ACC, was not identified in the current group of carcinomas. The current CGH results for chromosomes 12 and 19 were confirmed by microsatellite allelotyping. These results indicate that DNA copy number losses in 12q may be important in the oncogenesis of ACC and suggest that the 12q12--q13 region may harbor a new tumor-suppressor gene. (+info)
Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland is mainly due to a T lymphocyte immune reaction.
The aim of our study was to investigate the role of immunopathological processes in the pathogenesis of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of submandibular glands (Kuttner tumor). For this purpose, biopsy specimens from submandibular glands of 22 patients with the histological diagnosis of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis were analyzed. Paraffin-embedded tissues were immunostained for T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8), cytotoxic T cells (granzyme B), B cells (CD20, Ki-B3), and macrophages (Ki-M1P). Polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis were used to detect rearrangements of the T-cell receptor gamma chain and the CDRIII region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In all cases, abundant cytotoxic T cells were found, especially in close association with ducts and acini. T-cell receptor gamma chain rearrangements showed a monoclonal pattern in 6 cases (27.3%), an oligoclonal pattern in 8 (36.4%), and a polyclonal pattern in 8 (36.4%). The B-cell reaction was less pronounced and largely restricted to lymph follicles. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain revealed a polyclonal rearrangement in 17 cases (77.3%). In conclusion, there is an intimate relationship between the T-cell-dominated inflammatory infiltrate and acinar and duct cells. This, together with the frequent demonstration of monoclonal and oligoclonal populations of cytotoxic T cells and their histopathological behavior, suggests that chronic sclerosing sialadenitis may be the result of an immune process triggered by intraductal agents. (+info)
Slide-based cytometry for predicting malignancy in solid salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspirate biopsies.
BACKGROUND: To minimize hospitalization and morbidity for a patient with a solid tumor of a salivary gland, malignancy must be confirmed or excluded as soon as possible. This information cannot be obtained preoperatively by existing standard procedures. Minimal-invasive approaches with adequate diagnostic analysis represent a promising precondition for optimized therapy. METHODS: For fine needle aspirate biopsies (FNABs), laser scanning cytometry (LSC) offers a semi-automated slide-based technology for objective and quantitative analysis. We have established an assay for FNABs from salivary gland tumors. FNAB cells were stained for cytokeratin and DNA followed by LSC analysis. The cells were subsequently HE-stained and were relocalized on the slide. The LSC analysis quantitatively determines the DNA index (DI) of the tumor cells taking leukocytes as internal DNA diploid standard. Histograms with 0.95 < DI < 1.05 and 1.9 2.5 (i.e., 5c exceeding rate, 5cER) was calculated. Samples with DNA aneuploid peaks or with 5cER > 5% were classified as malignant. Routine histopathology was performed as a control. RESULTS: FNABs from 51 solid salivary gland tumors (41 parotid gland, six submandibular, four parapharyngeal) were analyzed with this assay. Eleven of 14 malignant tumors were DNA aneuploid by LSC analysis. All benign tumors showed diploid DNA content. The positive predictive value for malignancy was 1.0, the negative predictive value was 0.93, the correlation with routine histopathology was highly significant (p = 7.6 x 10(-9), Fisher's exact test). The calculated specificity of LSC analysis was 1.0 and the sensitivity was 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the validity of slide-based cytometry for the preoperative prediction of malignancy in solid tumors being inaccessible for incision biopsy but suitable for FNABs such as those of the parotid gland. (+info)
Frequency of chromosomal aberrations involving MALT1 in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with Sjogren's syndrome.
PURPOSE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma develops in the context of longstanding antigenic stimulation such as infection with Helicobacter pylori or autoimmune disease, including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recently, two chromosomal aberrations involving the MALT1 gene, i.e., t(11;18)(q21;q21) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) have been reported as genetic events specific for MALT lymphoma. In view of the association between SS and the development of MALT lymphoma, we have analyzed the frequency of t(11;18)(q21;q21) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) in patients with MALT lymphomas arising in the background of SS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with MALT lymphoma and SS was performed. The t(11;18)(q21;q21) was analyzed using reverse transcriptase-PCR, whereas t(14;18)(q32;q21) was assessed by two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients (20 female and 6 male) with MALT lymphoma and SS could be identified. The lymphoma was located in the parotid (n = 14), orbit (n = 2), and submandibular gland (n = 1), whereas 9 patients had gastric MALT lymphoma. Seven of 26 patients (27%) harbored t(11;18)(q21;q21). Interestingly, only 1 of 17 patients (6%) with extragastrointestinal lymphoma was positive, as opposed to 6 of 9 patients (67%) with gastric MALT lymphoma. Four of 26 patients were positive for t(14;18)(q32;q21): 3 of 17 extragastrointestinal (18%) and 1 of 9 gastric lymphomas (11%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency of MALT1 rearrangement appears to be low in patients with extragastrointestinal MALT lymphoma associated with SS. By contrast, MALT1 rearrangement was demonstrated in 7 of 9 patients (78%) with gastric MALT lymphoma and SS. This finding may explain at least in part why gastric MALT lymphomas in patients with SS are refractory to H. pylori eradication therapy. (+info)
Cytotoxicity, ROS-generation activity and radical-scavenging activity of curcumin and related compounds.
The cytotoxicity, ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generation activity and radical-scavenging activity of curcumin and related compounds such as eugenol, eugenol orthodimer (bis-eugenol; 3,3'-dimethoxy-5,5'-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) and isoeugenol were investigated. Their cytotoxicity against a human submandibular gland adenocarcinoma cell line (HSG) declined in the order curcumin > isoeugenol > bis-eugenol > eugenol. Since the hydrophobicity (log P) of curcumin, isoeugenol and eugenol is about 2.5, whereas that of bis-eugenol is 4.8, there was no relationship between cytotoxicity and log P. Generation of intracellular ROS in HSG cells was observed for curcumin alone in an assay using 5- (and -6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CDFH-DA). The cytotoxicity of, and ROS generation by, curcumin were reduced by the addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione, suggesting a possible link between cytotoxicity and ROS. The radical-scavenging (antioxidant) activity of curcumin and related compounds was determined quantitatively by the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by peroxy radicals derived from benzoyl peroxide (BPO) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The length of the induction (inhibition) period for curcumin was significantly greater than that of the other compounds. This suggests that curcumin is an efficient scavenger of peroxy radicals. The curcumin radical possibly reacts with itself or with other radicals to yield polymeric stable products such as curcumin dimer. Such polyphenolic behavior of curcumin was considerably different from that of bis-eugenol, which, like curcumin, has two hydroxy groups, or of other compounds with one hydroxy group. The radical-scavenging activity was also investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Curcumin scavenged approximately one DPPH free radical, suggesting the formation of curcumin dimer. The possible formation of curcumin dimer was explored with a PM3 semiempirical molecular orbital method. A molecular mechanism of cancer prevention by curcumin is proposed, based on its high reactivity with peroxy radicals at low oxygen pressure and on ROS generation induced by curcumin radicals. (+info)
No association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and salivary gland tumours.
AIM: To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for salivary gland tumours. METHODS: Cases were assessed from the six regional cancer registries in Sweden. Four controls matched for sex and age in five year age groups were selected for each case. A total of 293 living cases and 1172 controls were included. RESULTS: There were 267 (91%) participating cases and 1053 (90%) controls. Overall no significantly increased risk was found. Odds ratios were 0.92 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.44) for use of analogue phones, 1.01 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.50) for use of digital phones, and 0.99 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.43) for use of cordless phones. Similar results were found for different salivary gland localisations. No effect of tumour induction period or latency was seen, although few subjects reported use for more than 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: No association between the use of cellular or cordless phones and salivary gland tumours was found, although this study does not permit conclusions for long term heavy use. (+info)
Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer.
A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of metastasis was found on radio-iodine scanning. (+info)