Dynamic response of the intracranial system in the conscious dog to papaverine hydrochloride.
The influence of papaverine on the intracranial system of the dog was studied by measuring the pressure-depth-time response for the intact intracranial system, i.e., for the subarachnoid and subpial compartments. This was accomplished by a measurement system which provided an accurate pressure-depth determination and a uniform rate of transducer insertion. Distinct regions of the intracranial system (subarachnoid, transitional, and subpial) were identified from inflections in the pressure response curve. The test parameter, brain relative stiffness (BRS), was obtained by determining the slope of the pressure response values within the subpial region. This parameter is a measure of the "stiffness" or elasticity of bring tissue within the test configuration. A bolus injection of papaverine (1 mg per kilogram, i.v.) caused an increase in the transitional region, a compensatory reduction in the subarachnoid space, and an increase in BRS. It is postulated that at normotensive arterial blood pressure, cerebrovascular expansion caused by papaverine resulted in increased brain tissue elasticity, i.e., an increase in the pressure-depth response for the subpial region. Possible implications for this increase are discussed. Experiments should be conducted in which local blood flow studies are coupled with measurements of brain elastic response. (+info)
Focal ictal direct current shifts in human epilepsy as studied by subdural and scalp recording.
In order to clarify further the characteristics of ictal direct current (DC) shifts in human epilepsy, we investigated them by subdural and scalp recording in six and three patients, respectively, both having mainly neocortical lobe epilepsy (five with frontal lobe epilepsy, two with parietal lobe epilepsy and two with temporal lobe epilepsy). By using subdural electrodes made of platinum, ictal DC shifts were observed in 85% of all the recorded seizures (89 seizures) among the six patients, and they were localized to just one or two electrodes at which the conventional initial ictal EEG change was also observed. They were closely accompanied by the electrodecremental pattern in all patients except for one in whom 1 Hz rhythmic activity was superimposed on clear negative slow shifts. Seizure control after resection of the cortex, including the area showing DC shifts, was favourable irrespective of histological diagnosis. Scalp-recorded ictal slow shifts were observed in 23% of all the recorded seizures (60 seizures) among the three patients. They were, like the subdurally recorded ones, mainly surface-negative in polarity, closely related to the electrodecremental pattern and consistent in their location. It seems that scalp-recorded DC shifts were detected particularly when seizures were clinically intense, while no slow shifts were observed in small seizures. It is concluded that at least subdurally recorded ictal slow shifts are clinically useful before epilepsy surgery to delineate more specifically an epileptogenic area as well as to further confirm the conventional initial ictal EEG change, and that scalp-recorded ictal slow shifts also have high specificity although their low sensitivity is to be taken into account. (+info)
Cognitive motor control in human pre-supplementary motor area studied by subdural recording of discrimination/selection-related potentials.
To clarify the functional role of human pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in 'cognitive' motor control as compared with other non-primary motor cortices (SMA-proper and lateral premotor areas) and prefrontal area, we recorded epicortical field potentials by using subdural electrodes in five epileptic patients during presurgical evaluation, whose pre-SMA, SMA-proper, prefrontal and lateral premotor areas were defined by electric cortical stimulation and recent anatomical orientations according to the bicommissural plane and callosal grid system. An S1-Go/NoGo choice and delayed reaction task (S1-choice paradigm) and a warned choice Go/NoGo reaction task (S2-choice paradigm) with inter-stimulus intervals of 2 s were employed. The results showed (i) transient potentials with onset and peak latencies of about 200 and 600 ms, respectively, after S1 in the S1-choice paradigm mainly at pre-SMA and to a lesser degree at the prefrontal and lateral premotor areas, but not in the S2-choice paradigm. At SMA-proper, a similar but much smaller potential was seen after S1 in both S1- and S2-choice paradigms and (ii) slow sustained potentials between S1 and S2 in both S1- and S2-choice paradigms in all of the non-primary motor areas investigated (pre-SMA, SMA-proper and lateral premotor areas) and prefrontal area. It is concluded that pre-SMA plays a more important role in cognitive motor control which involves sensory discrimination and decision making or motor selection for the action after stimuli, whereas SMA-proper is one of the main generators of Bereitschaftspotential preceding self-paced, voluntary movements. In the more general anticipation of and attention to the forthcoming stimuli, non-primary motor cortices including pre-SMA, SMA-proper and lateral premotor area, and the prefrontal area are commonly involved. (+info)
Sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis. A complication of intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis.
Reported complications of intrathecal steroid therapy include aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and arachnoiditis. We report a case of sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis complicating the attempted intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis. The lesion is characterised by concentric laminar proliferation of neomembranes within the subdural space of the entire spinal cord and cauda equina, resulting from repeated episodes of injury and repair to the spinal dura mater by Depo-Medrol. There is clinical and laboratory evidence that Depo-Medrol produces meningeal irritation and that the vehicle is the necrotising fraction. (+info)
Direct cooling of the human brain by heat loss from the upper respiratory tract.
This study is the first report on human intracranial temperature in conscious patients during and after an upper respiratory bypass. Temperatures were measured in four subjects subdurally between the frontal lobes and cribriform plate (T(cr)) and on the vault of the skull (T(sd)). Further measurements were taken in the esophagus (T(es)) and on the tympanic membrane. Reinstitution of airflow in the upper respiratory tract under conditions of mild hyperthermia gave a rapid drop in T(cr) of 0.4-0.8 degrees C. In three patients the intracranial temperature at the basal aspect of the frontal lobes fell below T(es). Thus local selective cooling of the brain surface below that of the trunk temperature was shown to occur. Intensive breathing by the patients after extubation for a 3-min period produced a cooling at the site of T(cr) measurement at a rate of up to 0.1 degrees C/min, and this response could be evoked on demand. The results support the view that cooling of the upper airway can directly influence human brain temperature. (+info)
Seizure's outcome after cortical resections including the face and tongue rolandic areas in patients with refractory epilepsy and normal MRI submitted to subdural grids' implantation.
PURPOSE: To study the seizure's outcome in patients with refractory epilepsy and normal MRI submitted to resections including the rolandic cortex. METHODS: Four adult patients were studied. All patients had motor or somatosensory simple partial seizures and normal MRI and were submitted to subdural grids' implantation with extensive coverage of the cortical convexity (1 in the non-dominant and 3 in the dominant hemisphere). RESULTS: ECoG was able to define focal areas of seizures' onset in every patient. All patients were submitted to resection of the face and tongue motor and sensitive cortex; two patients had resections including the perirolandic cortex and 2 had additional cortical removals. Three patients are seizures' free and one had a greater then 90% reduction in seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: Resections including the face and tongue rolandic cortex can be safely performed even within the dominant hemisphere. (+info)
CT and pathologic findings of a case of subdural osteoma.
A 43-year-old female presented with persistent headache and dizziness which had first occurred two years earlier. The physical and neurological findings at admission were unremarkable, though plain radiography revealed the presence of a dense calcified mass in the left frontal area, and CT showed that a homogeneous high-density nodule was attached to the inner surface of the left frontal skull. The hard bony mass found and excised during surgery was shown at histopathologic examination to be a subdural osteoma. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of this entity and discuss the radiological features which suggest its subdural location. (+info)
Spinal subdural epidermoids - a separate entity: report of 3 cases.
Intradural extramedullary epidermoid cysts are rare tumors especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. We report 3 cases of spinal intradural extramedullary epidermoid cysts. In all the cases, the lesion was situated at dorsal level. The clinical features, MRI characteristics and surgical treatment of such rare intradural extramedullary benign tumors are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. (+info)